Companion Imaging Probes and Diagnostic Devices for B-Cell Lymphoma

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Companion Imaging Probes and Diagnostic Devices for B-Cell Lymphoma

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Title: Companion Imaging Probes and Diagnostic Devices for B-Cell Lymphoma
Author: Turetsky, Anna
Citation: Turetsky, Anna. 2014. Companion Imaging Probes and Diagnostic Devices for B-Cell Lymphoma. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University.
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Abstract: As new therapeutic targets and drugs are discovered for B-cell lymphoma and other cancers, companion diagnostics are also needed to determine target engagement, therapeutic efficacy, and patient segmentation for clinical trials. We first employed synthetic chemistry to build a platform for modifying small molecule drugs into imaging probes, using the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor AZD2281 (Olaparib) as a model for technology development. Our results showed that small-molecule companion imaging drugs can be used for fluorescence imaging in cells, as well as for pharmacokinetic studies and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in vivo, without significantly perturbing their target binding properties or cellular uptake. To apply this approach to B-cell lymphoma drugs currently in clinical trials, we modified an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK), PCI-32765 (Ibrutinib), with the fluorophore Bodipy FL (BFL), and used it for imaging in cells and in a mouse window-chamber xenograft model. The excellent co-localization of our probe (Ibrutinib-BFL) with BTK demonstrated its utility for studying additional BTK inhibitors and as a companion imaging probe. In parallel, we hypothesized that central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma diagnosis from paucicellular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples could be improved with molecular profiling of putative lymphoma cells trapped in a customized microfluidic chip. Following fabrication and characterization of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) diagnostic device containing an array of affinity-free single-cell capture sites, we were able to efficiently recover >90% of lymphocytes, perform immunostaining on chip, and apply an image-processing algorithm to group cells based on their molecular marker expression, such as kappa/lambda light chain restriction. Additionally, in combination with Ibrutinib-BFL or other imaging drugs, we demonstrated the potential for on-chip drug imaging for use in conjunction with drug development. Finally, we applied bioorthogonal conjugation chemistries on cellulose paper for potential applications in lowering the cost of drug screening. We anticipate that these approaches will enable direct, molecular information for personalized treatment decisions in B-cell lymphomas, as well as provide a roadmap for the development of companion diagnostic probes and devices for additional indications.
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