Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals
Runnels, Judith M.
Vinogradov, Sergei A.
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CitationSpencer, J. A., F. Ferraro, E. Roussakis, A. Klein, J. Wu, J. M. Runnels, W. Zaher, et al. 2014. “Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals.” Nature 508 (7495): 269-273. doi:10.1038/nature13034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13034.
AbstractCharacterizing how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for therapeutic manipulation of stem cells1. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types2–4. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis5, expression of HIF-1 and related genes6, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (e.g. pimonidazole)6–8. Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow (BM) of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM), we determined the absolute pO2 of the BM to be quite low (<32 mmHg) despite very high vascular density. We further uncovered heterogeneities in local pO2, with the lowest pO2 (~9.9 mmHg, or 1.3%) found in deeper peri-sinusoidal regions. The endosteal region, by contrast, is less hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change dramatically after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment.
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