A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer
Chang, Ellen T.
Mandel, Jack S.
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CitationChang, Ellen T., Paolo Boffetta, Hans-Olov Adami, Philip Cole, and Jack S. Mandel. 2014. “A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.” European Journal of Epidemiology 29 (10): 667-723. doi:10.1007/s10654-014-9931-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-014-9931-2.
AbstractTo inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case–control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case–control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10654-014-9931-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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