PTEN Negatively Regulates Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells by Modulating Activation of Rac GTPase
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CitationMondal, Subhanjan, Saurabh Ghosh-Roy, Fabien Loison, Yitang Li, Yonghui Jia, Chad Harris, David Allan Williams, and Hongbo R. Luo. 2011. “PTEN Negatively Regulates Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells by Modulating Activation of Rac GTPase.” Journal of Immunology 187 (11) (October 31): 5783–5794. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100484. http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1100484.
AbstractEfficient clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes (efferocytosis) is critical for normal tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune system. Apoptotic cells are recognized by a vast repertoire of receptors on macrophage that lead to transient formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate \([PtdIns(3,4,5)P_3]\) and subsequent cytoskeletal reorganization necessary for engulfment. Certain PI3K isoforms are required for engulfment of apoptotic cells, but relatively little is known about the role of lipid phosphatases in this process. In this study, we report that the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphatase, is elevated upon efferocytosis. Depletion of PTEN in macrophage results in elevated \(PtdIns(3,4,5)P_3\) production and enhanced phagocytic ability both in vivo and in vitro, whereas overexpression of wild-type PTEN abrogates this process. Loss of PTEN in macrophage leads to activation of the pleckstrin homology domain-containing guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 and subsequent activation of Rac1 GTPase, resulting in increased amounts of F-actin upon engulfment of apoptotic cells. PTEN disruption also leads to increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and decreased production of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α upon engulfment of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that PTEN exerts control over efferocytosis potentially by regulating \(PtdIns(3,4,5)P_3\) levels that modulate Rac GTPase and F-actin reorganization through Vav1 exchange factor and enhancing apoptotic cell-induced anti-inflammatory response.
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