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dc.contributor.authorMartínez, Karen G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFranco-Chaves, José A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMilad, Mohammed R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorQuirk, Gregory J.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2015-01-05T18:28:03Z
dc.date.issued2014en_US
dc.identifier.citationMartínez, Karen G., José A. Franco-Chaves, Mohammed R. Milad, and Gregory J. Quirk. 2014. “Ethnic Differences in Physiological Responses to Fear Conditioned Stimuli.” PLoS ONE 9 (12): e114977. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114977.en
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:13581197
dc.description.abstractThe idea that emotional expression varies with ethnicity is based largely on questionnaires and behavioral observations rather than physiological measures. We therefore compared the skin conductance responses (SCR) of Hispanic (Puerto Rican) and White non-Hispanic subjects in a fear conditioning and fear extinction task. Subjects were recruited from two sites: San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR), and Boston, Massachusetts (MA), using identical methods. A total of 78 healthy subjects (39 from PR, 39 from MA) were divided by sex and matched for age and educational level. Females from the two sites did not differ in their SCRs during any experimental phase of fear conditioning (habituation, conditioning, or extinction). In contrast, PR males responded significantly to the conditioned stimulus than MA males or PR females. Subtracting ethnic differences observed during the habituation phase (prior to conditioning) eliminated differences from subsequent phases, suggesting that PR males are elevated in their response to novelty rather than fear learning. Our findings suggest that, in addition to sex differences, there are ethnic differences in physiological responses to novel stimuli at least in males, which could be relevant for the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders.en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114977en
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4264849/pdf/en
dash.licenseLAAen_US
dc.subjectBiology and Life Sciencesen
dc.subjectPsychologyen
dc.subjectEmotionsen
dc.subjectAnxietyen
dc.subjectFearen
dc.subjectMedicine and Health Sciencesen
dc.subjectMental Health and Psychiatryen
dc.subjectNeuropsychiatric Disordersen
dc.subjectAnxiety Disordersen
dc.subjectPost-Traumatic Stress Disorderen
dc.subjectPeople and placesen
dc.subjectPopulation groupingsen
dc.subjectEthnicitiesen
dc.subjectHispanic Americansen
dc.subjectHispanic peopleen
dc.subjectLatin Americansen
dc.subjectSocial Sciencesen
dc.titleEthnic Differences in Physiological Responses to Fear Conditioned Stimulien
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen
dash.depositing.authorMilad, Mohammed R.en_US
dc.date.available2015-01-05T18:28:03Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0114977*
dash.contributor.affiliatedMilad, Mohammed R.


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