A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes

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Title: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes
Author: Safren, Steven A.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Wexler, Deborah J.; Psaros, Christina; Delahanty, Linda M.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Margolina, Aleksandra I.; Cagliero, Enrico

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Citation: Safren, Steven A., Jeffrey S. Gonzalez, Deborah J. Wexler, Christina Psaros, Linda M. Delahanty, Aaron J. Blashill, Aleksandra I. Margolina, and Enrico Cagliero. 2014. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes Care 37 (3): 625-633. doi:10.2337/dc13-0816. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc13-0816.
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Abstract: OBJECTIVE To test cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that CBT-AD would improve adherence; depression; and, secondarily, hemoglobin A1c (A1C). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-seven adults with unipolar depression and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes received enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU), including medication adherence, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), and lifestyle counseling; a provider letter documented psychiatric diagnoses. Those randomized to the intervention arm also received 9–11 sessions of CBT-AD. RESULTS Immediately after acute treatment (4 months), adjusting for baseline, CBT-AD had 20.7 percentage points greater oral medication adherence on electronic pill cap (95% CI −31.14 to −10.22, P = 0.000); 30.2 percentage points greater SMBG adherence through glucometer downloads (95% CI −42.95 to −17.37, P = 0.000); 6.44 points lower depression scores on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (95% CI 2.33–10.56, P = 0.002); 0.74 points lower on the Clinical Global Impression (95% CI 0.16–1.32, P = 0.01); and 0.72 units lower A1C (95% CI 0.29–1.15, P = 0.001) relative to ETAU. Analyses of 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up time points indicated that CBT-AD maintained 24.3 percentage points higher medication adherence (95% CI −38.2 to −10.3, P = 0.001); 16.9 percentage points greater SMBG adherence (95% CI −33.3 to −0.5, P = 0.043); and 0.63 units lower A1C (95% CI 0.06–1.2, P = 0.03) after acute treatment ended. For depression, there was some evidence of continued improvement posttreatment, but no between-group differences. CONCLUSIONS CBT-AD is an effective intervention for adherence, depression, and glycemic control, with enduring and clinically meaningful benefits for diabetes self-management and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes and depression.
Published Version: doi:10.2337/dc13-0816
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931377/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:14351356
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