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dc.contributor.authorRoper, M.
dc.contributor.authorPepper, R. E.
dc.contributor.authorBrenner, Michael P.
dc.contributor.authorPringle, Anne E.
dc.date.accessioned2015-04-10T17:16:18Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifier.citationRoper, M., R. E. Pepper, M. P. Brenner, and A. Pringle. 2008. “Explosively Launched Spores of Ascomycete Fungi Have Drag-Minimizing Shapes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (52) (December 22): 20583–20588. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805017105.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:14400079
dc.description.abstractThe forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch.We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes—shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes—and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipOrganismic and Evolutionary Biologyen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPhysicsen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1073/pnas.0805017105en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2634873/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjecthydrodynamicsen_US
dc.subjectbiological optimizationen_US
dc.subjectfungal sporesen_US
dc.titleExplosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen_US
dash.depositing.authorPringle, Anne E.
dc.date.available2015-04-10T17:16:18Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1073/pnas.0805017105*
dash.contributor.affiliatedBrenner, Michael
dash.contributor.affiliatedPringle, Anne E.


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