Vitamin D Status and Acute Respiratory Infection: Cross Sectional Results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006
Monlezun, Dominique J.
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CitationMonlezun, Dominique J., Edward A. Bittner, Kenneth B. Christopher, Carlos A. Camargo, and Sadeq A. Quraishi. 2015. “Vitamin D Status and Acute Respiratory Infection: Cross Sectional Results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006.” Nutrients 7 (3): 1933-1944. doi:10.3390/nu7031933. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu7031933.
AbstractVitamin D is a promising, though under-explored, potential modifiable risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We sought to investigate the association of vitamin D status with ARI in a large, nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. We analyzed 14,108 individuals over 16 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006 in this cross-sectional study. We used locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) to depict the relationship between increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and ARI. We then performed a multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARI, while adjusting for known confounders. The median serum 25OHD level was 21 (IQR 15–27) ng/mL. Overall, 4.8% (95% CI: 4.5–5.2) of participants reported an ARI within 30 days before their participation in the national survey. LOWESS analysis revealed a near-linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of ARI up to 25OHD levels around 30 ng/mL. After adjusting for season, demographic factors, and clinical data, 25OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 58% higher odds of ARI (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33) compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. Among the 14,108 participants in NHANES 2001–2006, 25OHD levels were inversely associated with ARI. Carefully designed, randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of ARI.
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