Adipokines as Drug Targets in Diabetes and Underlying Disturbances
Câmara, Niels O. S.
Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M.
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CitationAndrade-Oliveira, Vinícius, Niels O. S. Câmara, and Pedro M. Moraes-Vieira. 2015. “Adipokines as Drug Targets in Diabetes and Underlying Disturbances.” Journal of Diabetes Research 2015 (1): 681612. doi:10.1155/2015/681612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/681612.
AbstractDiabetes and obesity are worldwide health problems. White fat dynamically participates in hormonal and inflammatory regulation. White adipose tissue is recognized as a multifactorial organ that secretes several adipose-derived factors that have been collectively termed “adipokines.” Adipokines are pleiotropic molecules that gather factors such as leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, apelin, vaspin, hepcidin, RBP4, and inflammatory cytokines, including TNF and IL-1β, among others. Multiple roles in metabolic and inflammatory responses have been assigned to these molecules. Several adipokines contribute to the self-styled “low-grade inflammatory state” of obese and insulin-resistant subjects, inducing the accumulation of metabolic anomalies within these individuals, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Thus, adipokines are an interesting drug target to treat autoimmune diseases, obesity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the roles of adipokines in different immune and nonimmune cells, which will contribute to diabetes as well as to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance development. We describe how adipokines regulate inflammation in these diseases and their therapeutic implications. We also survey current attempts to exploit adipokines for clinical applications, which hold potential as novel approaches to drug development in several immune-mediated diseases.
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