The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis
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CitationWiesinger, Christoph, Florian S Eichler, and Johannes Berger. 2015. “The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis.” The Application of Clinical Genetics 8 (1): 109-121. doi:10.2147/TACG.S49590. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S49590.
AbstractX-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding a peroxisomal ABC transporter. In this review, we compare estimates of incidence derived from different populations in order to provide an overview of the worldwide incidence of X-ALD. X-ALD presents with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to inflammatory demyelinating cerebral ALD (CALD). A large number of different mutations has been described, providing a unique opportunity for analysis of functional domains within ABC transporters. Yet the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms is still largely unresolved, as no correlation between genotype and phenotype exists in X-ALD. Beyond ABCD1, environmental triggers and other genetic factors have been suggested as modifiers of the disease course. Here, we summarize the findings of numerous reports that aimed at identifying modifier genes in X-ALD and discuss potential problems and future approaches to address this issue. Different options for prenatal diagnosis are summarized, and potential pitfalls when applying next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Recently, the measurement of very long-chain fatty acids in lysophosphatidylcholine for the identification of peroxisomal disorders was included in newborn screening programs.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:16121005
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