A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection
Hickey, Andrew J
Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S
MetadataShow full item record
CitationHickey, Andrew J, Lilishia Gounder, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, and Paul K Drain. 2015. “A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.” BMC Infectious Diseases 15 (1): 209. doi:10.1186/s12879-015-0944-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-0944-6.
AbstractBackground: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection of the liver, known as hepatic TB, is an extrapulmonary manifestation of TB. Hepatic TB has become more prevalent, likely as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. We sought to review case series to characterize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatic TB and to comment on the impact of HIV co-infection on these characteristics. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and ScienceDirect for articles pertaining to hepatic TB with human subjects from 1960 to July 2013. Results: We obtained data on 618 hepatic TB patients from 14 case series. The most common reported signs and symptoms were hepatomegaly (median: 80%, range: 10-100%), fever (median: 67%, range: 30–100), respiratory symptoms (median: 66%, range: 32-78%), abdominal pain (median: 59.5%, range: 40-83%), and weight loss (median: 57.5%, range: 20-100%). Common laboratory abnormalities were elevated alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT) were sensitive but non-specific. On liver biopsy, smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli had a median sensitivity of 25% (range: 0-59%), histology of caseating granulomas had a median sensitivity of 68% (range: 14-100%), and polymerase chain reaction for TB had a median sensitivity of 86% (range: 30-100%). Standard anti-tuberculous chemotherapy for 6 to 12 months achieved positive outcomes for nearly all patients with drug-susceptible TB. Conclusions: Clinicians in TB-endemic regions should maintain a high index of suspicion for hepatic TB in patients presenting with hepatomegaly, fever, respiratory symptoms, and elevated liver enzymes. The most sensitive imaging modality is a CT scan, while the most specific diagnostic modality is a liver biopsy with nucleic acid testing of liver tissue samples. Upon diagnosis, 4-drug anti-TB therapy should promptly be initiated. HIV co-infected patients may have more complex cases and should be closely monitored for complications.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:16121079
- HMS Scholarly Articles