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dc.contributor.authorNemiroski, Alex
dc.contributor.authorChristodouleas, Dionysios
dc.contributor.authorHennek, J. W.
dc.contributor.authorKumar, Ashok Ashwin
dc.contributor.authorMaxwell, E. J.
dc.contributor.authorFernandez-Abedul, M. T.
dc.contributor.authorWhitesides, George McClelland
dc.date.accessioned2015-06-30T20:26:01Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.citationNemiroski, A., D. C. Christodouleas, J. W. Hennek, A. A. Kumar, E. J. Maxwell, M. T. Fernandez-Abedul, and G. M. Whitesides. 2014. “Universal Mobile Electrochemical Detector Designed for Use in Resource-Limited Applications.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (33) (August 4): 11984–11989. doi:10.1073/pnas.1405679111.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0027-8424en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:16920716
dc.description.abstractThis paper describes an inexpensive, handheld device that couples the most common forms of electrochemical analysis directly to “the cloud” using any mobile phone, for use in resource-limited settings. The device is designed to operate with a wide range of electrode formats, performs on-board mixing of samples by vibration, and transmits data over voice using audio—an approach that guarantees broad compatibility with any available mobile phone (from low-end phones to smartphones) or cellular network (second, third, and fourth generation). The electrochemical methods that we demonstrate enable quantitative, broadly applicable, and inexpensive sensing with flexibility based on a wide variety of important electroanalytical techniques (chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, and potentiometry), each with different uses. Four applications demonstrate the analytical performance of the device: these involve the detection of (i) glucose in the blood for personal health, (ii) trace heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and zinc) in water for in-field environmental monitoring, (iii) sodium in urine for clinical analysis, and (iv) a malarial antigen (Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2) for clinical research. The combination of these electrochemical capabilities in an affordable, handheld format that is compatible with any mobile phone or network worldwide guarantees that sophisticated diagnostic testing can be performed by users with a broad spectrum of needs, resources, and levels of technical expertise.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipChemistry and Chemical Biologyen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.­1073/pna­s.1405679111en_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.subjectelectrochemistryen_US
dc.subjectmHealthen_US
dc.subjectpoint-of-care diagnosticsen_US
dc.subjectlow-cost potentiostaten_US
dc.subjecttelemedicineen_US
dc.titleUniversal mobile electrochemical detector designed for use in resource-limited applicationsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscripten_US
dc.relation.journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen_US
dash.depositing.authorWhitesides, George McClelland
dc.date.available2015-06-30T20:26:01Z
dc.identifier.doi10.­1073/pna­s.1405679111*
workflow.legacycommentsFAR 2014en_US
dash.contributor.affiliatedNemiroski, Alex
dash.contributor.affiliatedChristodouleas, Dionysios
dash.contributor.affiliatedKumar, Ashok Ashwin
dash.contributor.affiliatedWhitesides, George
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0001-9451-2442


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