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dc.contributor.authorSnir, Ainiten_US
dc.contributor.authorNadel, Danien_US
dc.contributor.authorGroman-Yaroslavski, Irisen_US
dc.contributor.authorMelamed, Yoelen_US
dc.contributor.authorSternberg, Marceloen_US
dc.contributor.authorBar-Yosef, Oferen_US
dc.contributor.authorWeiss, Ehuden_US
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T14:01:09Z
dc.date.issued2015en_US
dc.identifier.citationSnir, Ainit, Dani Nadel, Iris Groman-Yaroslavski, Yoel Melamed, Marcelo Sternberg, Ofer Bar-Yosef, and Ehud Weiss. 2015. “The Origin of Cultivation and Proto-Weeds, Long Before Neolithic Farming.” PLoS ONE 10 (7): e0131422. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131422.en
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:17820749
dc.description.abstractWeeds are currently present in a wide range of ecosystems worldwide. Although the beginning of their evolution is largely unknown, researchers assumed that they developed in tandem with cultivation since the appearance of agricultural habitats some 12,000 years ago. These rapidly-evolving plants invaded the human disturbed areas and thrived in the new habitat. Here we present unprecedented new findings of the presence of “proto-weeds” and small-scale trial cultivation in Ohalo II, a 23,000-year-old hunter-gatherers' sedentary camp on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Israel. We examined the plant remains retrieved from the site (ca. 150,000 specimens), placing particular emphasis on the search for evidence of plant cultivation by Ohalo II people and the presence of weed species. The archaeobotanically-rich plant assemblage demonstrates extensive human gathering of over 140 plant species and food preparation by grinding wild wheat and barley. Among these, we identified 13 well-known current weeds mixed with numerous seeds of wild emmer, barley, and oat. This collection provides the earliest evidence of a human-disturbed environment—at least 11 millennia before the onset of agriculture—that provided the conditions for the development of "proto-weeds", a prerequisite for weed evolution. Finally, we suggest that their presence indicates the earliest, small-scale attempt to cultivate wild cereals seen in the archaeological record.en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131422en
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4511808/pdf/en
dash.licenseLAAen_US
dc.titleThe Origin of Cultivation and Proto-Weeds, Long Before Neolithic Farmingen
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen
dash.depositing.authorBar-Yosef, Oferen_US
dc.date.available2015-08-03T14:01:09Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0131422*
dash.contributor.affiliatedBar-yosef, Ofer


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