Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorKenny, Jonathan D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Norman E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Emery N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSolt, Kenen_US
dc.date.accessioned2015-08-03T14:02:49Z
dc.date.issued2015en_US
dc.identifier.citationKenny, Jonathan D., Norman E. Taylor, Emery N. Brown, and Ken Solt. 2015. “Dextroamphetamine (but Not Atomoxetine) Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia: Implications for the Roles of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in Active Emergence.” PLoS ONE 10 (7): e0131914. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131914.en
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:17820955
dc.description.abstractMethylphenidate induces reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia in rodents, and recent evidence suggests that dopaminergic neurotransmission is important in producing this effect. Dextroamphetamine causes the direct release of dopamine and norepinephrine, whereas atomoxetine is a selective reuptake inhibitor for norepinephrine. Like methylphenidate, both drugs are prescribed to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In this study, we tested the efficacy of dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine for inducing reanimation from general anesthesia in rats. Emergence from general anesthesia was defined by return of righting. During continuous sevoflurane anesthesia, dextroamphetamine dose-dependently induced behavioral arousal and restored righting, but atomoxetine did not (n = 6 each). When the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 was administered prior to dextroamphetamine under the same conditions, righting was not restored (n = 6). After a single dose of propofol (8 mg/kg IV), the mean emergence times for rats that received normal saline (vehicle) and dextroamphetamine (1 mg/kg IV) were 641 sec and 404 sec, respectively (n = 8 each). The difference was statistically significant. Although atomoxetine reduced mean emergence time to 566 sec (n = 8), this decrease was not statistically significant. Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram recordings revealed that dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine both induced a shift in peak power from δ (0.1–4 Hz) to θ (4–8 Hz) during continuous sevoflurane general anesthesia, which was not observed when animals were pre-treated with SCH-23390. In summary, dextroamphetamine induces reanimation from general anesthesia in rodents, but atomoxetine does not induce an arousal response under the same experimental conditions. This supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic stimulation during general anesthesia produces a robust behavioral arousal response. In contrast, selective noradrenergic stimulation causes significant neurophysiological changes, but does not promote behavioral arousal during general anesthesia. We hypothesize that dextroamphetamine is more likely than atomoxetine to be clinically useful for restoring consciousness in anesthetized patients, mainly due to its stimulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission.en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131914en
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4492624/pdf/en
dash.licenseLAAen_US
dc.titleDextroamphetamine (but Not Atomoxetine) Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia: Implications for the Roles of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in Active Emergenceen
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen
dash.depositing.authorTaylor, Norman E.en_US
dc.date.available2015-08-03T14:02:49Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0131914*
dash.contributor.affiliatedTaylor, Norman E.
dash.contributor.affiliatedSolt, Ken
dash.contributor.affiliatedBrown, Emery


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record