Rational and combinatorial tailoring of bioactive cyclic dipeptides
Marahiel, Mohamed A.
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CitationGiessen, Tobias W., and Mohamed A. Marahiel. 2015. “Rational and combinatorial tailoring of bioactive cyclic dipeptides.” Frontiers in Microbiology 6 (1): 785. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00785. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00785.
AbstractModified cyclic dipeptides represent a diverse family of microbial secondary metabolites. They display a broad variety of biological and pharmacological activities and have long been recognized as privileged structures with the ability to bind to a wide range of receptors. This is due to their conformationally constrained 2, 5-diketopiperazine (DKP) scaffold and the diverse set of DKP tailoring enzymes present in nature. After initial DKP assembly through different biosynthetic systems modifying enzymes are responsible for installing functional groups crucial for the biological activities of the resulting modified DKPs. They represent a vast and largely untapped enzyme repository very useful for synthetic biology approaches aiming at introducing structural variations into DKP scaffolds. In this review we focus on these DKP modification enzymes found in various microbial secondary metabolite gene clusters. We will give a brief overview of their distribution and highlight a select number of characterized DKP tailoring enzymes before turning to their application potential in combinatorial biosynthesis with the aim of producing molecules with improved or entirely new biological and medicinally relevant properties.
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