Lessons from a Rare Familial Dementia: Amyloid and Beyond

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Lessons from a Rare Familial Dementia: Amyloid and Beyond

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Title: Lessons from a Rare Familial Dementia: Amyloid and Beyond
Author: Cantlon, Adam; Frigerio, Carlo Sala; Walsh, Dominic M.

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Citation: Cantlon, Adam, Carlo Sala Frigerio, and Dominic M. Walsh. 2015. “Lessons from a Rare Familial Dementia: Amyloid and Beyond.” Journal of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease 2 (1): 12. doi:10.13188/2376-922X.1000009. http://dx.doi.org/10.13188/2376-922X.1000009.
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Abstract: Here we review the similarities between a rare inherited disorder, familial British dementia (FBD), and the most common of all late-life neurological conditions, Alzheimer's diseases (AD). We describe the symptoms, pathology and genetics of FBD, the biology of the BRI2 protein and mouse models of FBD and familial Danish dementia. In particular, we focus on the evolving recognition of the importance of protein oligomers and aberrant processing of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) - themes that are common to both FBD and AD. The initial discovery that FBD is phenotypically similar to AD, but associated with the deposition of an amyloid peptide (ABri) distinct from the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) led many to assume that amyloid production alone is sufficient to initiate disease and that ABri is the molecular equivalent of Aβ. Parallel with work on Aβ, studies of ABri producing animal models and in vitro ABri toxicity experiments caused a revision of the amyloid hypothesis and a focus on soluble oligomers of Aβ and ABri. Contemporaneous other studies suggested that loss of the ABri precursor protein (BRI2) may underlie the cognitive deficits in FBD. In this regard it is important to note that BRI2 has been shown to interact with and regulate the processing of APP, and that mutant BRI2 leads to altered cleavage of APP. A synthesis of these results suggests that a “two-hit mechanism” better explains FBD than earlier toxic gain of function and toxic loss of function models. The lessons learned from the study of FBD imply that the molecular pathology of AD is also likely to involve both aberrant aggregation (in AD, Aβ) and altered APP processing. With regard to FBD, we propose that the C-terminal 11 amino acid of FBD-BRI2 interfere with both the normal function of BRI2 and promotes the production of cystine cross-linked toxic ABri oligomers. In this scenario, loss of BRI2 function leads to altered APP processing in as yet underappreciated ways. Given the similarities between FBD and AD it seems likely that study of the structure of ABri oligomers and FBD-induced changes in APP metabolites will further our understanding of AD.
Published Version: doi:10.13188/2376-922X.1000009
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578630/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:22857048
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