Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Prevention
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CitationBaffy, György. 2013. “Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Prevention.” Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 1 (2): 131-137. doi:10.14218/JCTH.2013.00005. http://dx.doi.org/10.14218/JCTH.2013.00005.
AbstractHepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fifth most prevalent cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a spectrum of hepatic disorders associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, is a recognized risk factor for HCC. NAFLD that is advanced to cirrhosis carries the highest risk for HCC, but there is increasing concern that NAFLD-associated HCC may also occur in non-cirrhotic liver. As NAFLD is rapidly becoming the most common liver condition, it has been implicated in the worrisome trend of rising HCC incidence in a number of countries, which may offset successful measures in reducing the effect of virus-related liver cancer. Independently or in synergy with cirrhosis, NAFLD may provide a special oncogenic microenvironment through its pathogenic association with chronic nutrient excess and adipose tissue remodeling, characterized by pro-inflammatory adipokine profiles, lipotoxicity, altered hepatocellular bioenergetics, and insulin resistance. Better understanding of this complex process, and development of reliable biomarkers for HCC will be critical for early recognition and risk prediction. Moreover, correcting deranged lipid metabolism and restoring insulin sensitivity by lifestyle measures and targeted pharmacotherapy holds major promise for effective prevention of NAFLD-associated HCC.
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