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dc.contributor.authorGibb, Hermanen_US
dc.contributor.authorDevleesschauwer, Brechten_US
dc.contributor.authorBolger, P. Michaelen_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, Feliciaen_US
dc.contributor.authorEzendam, Janineen_US
dc.contributor.authorCliff, Julieen_US
dc.contributor.authorZeilmaker, Marcoen_US
dc.contributor.authorVerger, Philippeen_US
dc.contributor.authorPitt, Johnen_US
dc.contributor.authorBaines, Janisen_US
dc.contributor.authorAdegoke, Gabrielen_US
dc.contributor.authorAfshari, Rezaen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Yanen_US
dc.contributor.authorBokkers, Basen_US
dc.contributor.authorvan Loveren, Henken_US
dc.contributor.authorMengelers, Marcelen_US
dc.contributor.authorBrandon, Estheren_US
dc.contributor.authorHavelaar, Arie H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBellinger, Daviden_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-01T19:51:19Z
dc.date.issued2015en_US
dc.identifier.citationGibb, H., B. Devleesschauwer, P. M. Bolger, F. Wu, J. Ezendam, J. Cliff, M. Zeilmaker, et al. 2015. “World Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of four foodborne chemical toxins, 2010: a data synthesis.” F1000Research 4 (1): 1393. doi:10.12688/f1000research.7340.1. http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.7340.1.en
dc.identifier.issn2046-1402en
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:25658554
dc.description.abstractBackground: Chemical exposures have been associated with a variety of health effects; however, little is known about the global disease burden from foodborne chemicals. Food can be a major pathway for the general population’s exposure to chemicals, and for some chemicals, it accounts for almost 100% of exposure. Methods and Findings: Groups of foodborne chemicals, both natural and anthropogenic, were evaluated for their ability to contribute to the burden of disease. The results of the analyses on four chemicals are presented here - cyanide in cassava, peanut allergen, aflatoxin, and dioxin. Systematic reviews of the literature were conducted to develop age- and sex-specific disease incidence and mortality estimates due to these chemicals. From these estimates, the numbers of cases, deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated. For these four chemicals combined, the total number of illnesses, deaths, and DALYs in 2010 is estimated to be 339,000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 186,000-1,239,000); 20,000 (95% UI: 8,000-52,000); and 1,012,000 (95% UI: 562,000-2,822,000), respectively. Both cyanide in cassava and aflatoxin are associated with diseases with high case-fatality ratios. Virtually all human exposure to these four chemicals is through the food supply. Conclusion: Chemicals in the food supply, as evidenced by the results for only four chemicals, can have a significant impact on the global burden of disease. The case-fatality rates for these four chemicals range from low (e.g., peanut allergen) to extremely high (aflatoxin and liver cancer). The effects associated with these four chemicals are neurologic (cyanide in cassava), cancer (aflatoxin), allergic response (peanut allergen), endocrine (dioxin), and reproductive (dioxin).en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherF1000Researchen
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.12688/f1000research.7340.1en
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755404/pdf/en
dash.licenseLAAen_US
dc.subjectArticlesen
dc.subjectEpidemiologyen
dc.subjectGlobal Healthen
dc.subjectpublic healthen
dc.subjectepidemiologyen
dc.subjectfoodborne diseasesen
dc.subjectDALYsen
dc.subjectaflatoxinen
dc.subjectcassavaen
dc.subjectcyanideen
dc.subjectdioxinen
dc.subjectpeanut allergenen
dc.titleWorld Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of four foodborne chemical toxins, 2010: a data synthesisen
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden
dc.relation.journalF1000Researchen
dash.depositing.authorBellinger, Daviden_US
dc.date.available2016-03-01T19:51:19Z
dc.identifier.doi10.12688/f1000research.7340.1*
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedBellinger, David


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