Bacterial-excreted small volatile molecule 2-aminoacetophenone induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in murine skeletal muscle
MARTYN, J.A. JEEVENDRA
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CitationBANDYOPADHAYA, ARUNAVA, CATERINA CONSTANTINOU, NIKOLAOS PSYCHOGIOS, RYUSUKE UEKI, SHINGO YASUHARA, J.A. JEEVENDRA MARTYN, JULIE WILHELMY, MICHAEL MINDRINOS, LAURENCE G. RAHME, and A. ARIA TZIKA. 2016. “Bacterial-excreted small volatile molecule 2-aminoacetophenone induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in murine skeletal muscle.” International Journal of Molecular Medicine 37 (4): 867-878. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2016.2487. http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2016.2487.
AbstractOxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction and facilitates apoptosis, tissue damage or metabolic alterations following infection. We have previously discovered that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) quorum sensing (QS)-excreted small volatile molecule, 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), which is produced in infected human tissue, promotes bacterial phenotypes that favor chronic infection, while also compromising muscle function and dampens the pathogen-induced innate immune response, promoting host tolerance to infection. In this study, murine whole-genome expression data have demonstrated that 2-AA affects the expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, thus producing an oxidative stress signature in skeletal muscle. The results of the present study demonstrated that the expression levels of genes involved in apoptosis signaling pathways were upregulated in the skeletal muscle of 2-AA-treated mice. To confirm the results of our transcriptome analysis, we used a novel high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS), proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method and observed increased levels of bisallylic methylene fatty acyl protons and vinyl protons, suggesting that 2-AA induces skeletal muscle cell apoptosis. This effect was corroborated by our results demonstrating the downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential in vivo in response to 2-AA. The findings of the present study indicate that the bacterial infochemical, 2-AA, disrupts mitochondrial functions by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling and likely promotes skeletal muscle dysfunction, which may favor chronic/persistent infection.
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