Off-fault Plasticity and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics: 1. Dry Materials or Neglect of Fluid Pressure Changes
Templeton, Elizabeth L.
MetadataShow full item record
CitationTempleton, Elizabeth L. and James R. Rice. 2008. Off-fault plasticity and earthquake rupture dynamics: 1. Dry materials or neglect of fluid pressure changes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, B09306, doi:10.1029/2007JB005529.
AbstractWe analyze inelastic off-fault response during earthquakes. Spontaneous crack-like rupture, with slip weakening, is modeled in 2-D plane strain using an explicit dynamic finite element procedure. A Mohr-Coulomb type elastic-plastic description describes the material bordering the fault. We identify the factors which control the extent and distribution of off-fault plasticity during dynamic rupture. Those include the angle with the fault of the maximum compressive prestress, the seismic S ratio, and the closeness of the initial stress state to Mohr-Coulomb failure. Plastic response can significantly alter the rupture propagation velocity, delaying or even preventing a transition to supershear rupture in some cases. Plastic straining also alters the residual stress field left near the fault. In part 1, we consider “dry” materials bordering the fault, or at least neglect pore pressure changes within them. Part 2 addresses the effects of fluid saturation, showing that analysis procedures of this part can describe undrained fluid-saturated response. Elastic-plastic laws of the type used are prone to shear localization, resulting in an inherent grid dependence in some numerical solutions. Nevertheless, we show that in the problems addressed, the overall sizes of plastic regions and the dynamics of rupture propagation seem little different from what are obtained when we increase the assumed plastic hardening modulus or dilatancy parameter above the theoretical threshold for localization, obtaining a locally smooth numerical solution at the grid scale. Evidence for scaling of some localization features with a real (nongrid) length scale in the model is also presented.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:2643122
- FAS Scholarly Articles