New Features of Electrocardiogram in a Case Report of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: A Care-Compliant Article
Li, DeNote: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationPei, Haifeng, Qiujun Yu, Xiaohua Su, Zhen Wang, Heng Zhao, Dachun Yang, Yongjian Yang, and De Li. 2016. “New Features of Electrocardiogram in a Case Report of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: A Care-Compliant Article.” Medicine 95 (16): e3442. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000003442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000003442.
AbstractAbstract Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a crucial health problem. With sudden death often being the first presentation, early diagnosis for ARVC is essential. Up to date, electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used diagnostic method without invasive harms. To diagnose and treat ARVC as well as possible, we should clearly elucidate its pathophysiological alterations. A 66-year-old farmer presented to the Emergency Department with continuous palpitation, chest tightness, profuse sweating, and nausea with no obvious predisposing causes. An ECG indicated ventricular tachycardia (VT). The patient experienced a sudden drop in blood pressure and acute confusion. After an immediate electrical conversion, his consciousness was gradually restored, and symptoms relieved. The patient was then transferred to the Department of Cardiology to receive ECG, echocardiography, coronary angiogram, biochemical assays, endocardiac tracing, and radiofrequency ablation. In the end, he was diagnosed with ARVC, evidenced by bilateral ventricle dilation and epsilon waves in leads V1–V3. Appropriate therapies were provided for this patient including pharmacological intervention and radiofrequency ablation. Although the diagnosis of ARVC is not difficult, this patient's ECG manifested several interesting features and should be further investigated: T wave inversions were found extensively in the anterior and inferior leads, revealing the involvement of bilateral ventricles; VTs with different morphologies and cycle lengths were found, and some VTs manifested the feature of irregularly irregular rhythm, reminding us to carefully differentiate some special VTs from atrial fibrillation (AF); and epsilon waves gradually appeared in leads V1–V3 and avR since the onset of ARVC. Most importantly, the epsilon waves behind QRS complex appeared in both sinus rhythm and ventricular premature beats/VT originating from cardiac apex, whereas the epsilon waves prior to QRS complex occurred in VT originating from right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The features of T wave inversion and epsilon wave in ECGs and the appearance of VTs with different morphologies can reflect the progression of ARVC. The position relationship between epsilon wave and QRS complex in VT depends on ventricular activation sequence, that is, the localization of epsilon wave depends on where VT is originating from.
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