Cellular uptake mechanisms and endosomal trafficking of supercharged proteins
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CitationThompson, David B., Roberto Villaseñor, Brent M. Dorr, Marino Zerial, and David R. Liu. 2012. Cellular uptake mechanisms and endosomal trafficking of supercharged proteins. Chemistry & Biology 19, no. 7: 831–843. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2012.06.014.
AbstractSupercharged proteins can deliver functional macromolecules into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells with potencies that exceed those of cationic peptides. The structural features of supercharged proteins that determine their delivery effectiveness and the intracellular fate of supercharged proteins once they enter cells have not yet been studied. Using a large set of supercharged GFP(scGFP) variants, we found that the level of cellular uptake is sigmoidally related to net charge, and that scGFPs enter cells through multiple pathways including clathrin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Supercharged proteins activate Rho and ERK1/2, and also alter the endocytic transport of transferrin and EGF. Finally, we discovered that the intracellular trafficking of endosomes containing scGFPs is altered in a manner that correlates with protein delivery potency. Collectively, our findings establish basic structure-activity relationships of supercharged proteins and implicate the modulation of endosomal trafficking as a determinant of cell-penetration and macromolecule-delivery efficiency.
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