Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management
Beavis, Anna L
Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha
Fader, Amanda Nickles
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CitationBeavis, Anna L, Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith, and Amanda Nickles Fader. 2016. “Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management.” International Journal of Women's Health 8 (1): 151-167. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S88367. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S88367.
AbstractModifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC. Other medications, such as metformin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may be protective, and interventional research is ongoing. For OC, we find increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of developing OC. Oral contraceptive pills are protective against OC but are underutilized. Dietary factors such as the Mediterranean diet and alcohol consumption do not seem to affect the risk of either OC or EC. For EC and OC survivors, physical activity and weight loss are associated with improved quality of life. Small interventional trials show promise in increasing physical activity and weight maintenance for EC and OC survivors, although the impact on long-term health, including cancer recurrence and overall mortality, is unknown. Women’s health providers should integrate counseling about these modifiable lifestyle factors into both the discussion of prevention for all women and the management of survivors of gynecologic cancers.
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