The histone chaperone CAF-1 safeguards somatic cell identity
Ang, Cheen Euong
Wesche, Daniel J
Vidal, Simon E
Chang, Howard Y.
Lowe, Scott W
Penninger, Josef M
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CitationCheloufi, S., U. Elling, B. Hopfgartner, Y. L. Jung, J. Murn, M. Ninova, M. Hubmann, et al. 2016. “The histone chaperone CAF-1 safeguards somatic cell identity.” Nature 528 (7581): 218-224. doi:10.1038/nature15749. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature15749.
AbstractCellular differentiation involves profound remodeling of chromatic landscapes, yet the mechanisms by which somatic cell identity is subsequently maintained remain incompletely understood. To further elucidate regulatory pathways that safeguard the somatic state, we performed two comprehensive RNAi screens targeting chromatin factors during transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Remarkably, subunits of the chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) complex emerged as the most prominent hits from both screens, followed by modulators of lysine sumoylation and heterochromatin maintenance. Optimal modulation of both CAF-1 and transcription factor levels increased reprogramming efficiency by several orders of magnitude and facilitated iPSC formation in as little as 4 days. Mechanistically, CAF-1 suppression led to a more accessible chromatin structure at enhancer elements early during reprogramming. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in somatic heterochromatin domains, increased binding of Sox2 to pluripotency-specific targets and activation of associated genes. Notably, suppression of CAF-1 also enhanced the direct conversion of B cells into macrophages and fibroblasts into neurons. Together, our findings reveal the histone chaperone CAF-1 as a novel regulator of somatic cell identity during transcription factor-induced cell fate transitions and provide a potential strategy to modulate cellular plasticity in a regenerative setting.
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