Multivariate Methods for Genetic Variants Selection and Risk Prediction in Cardiovascular Diseases
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CitationMalovini, Alberto, Riccardo Bellazzi, Carlo Napolitano, and Guia Guffanti. 2016. “Multivariate Methods for Genetic Variants Selection and Risk Prediction in Cardiovascular Diseases.” Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 3 (1): 17. doi:10.3389/fcvm.2016.00017. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2016.00017.
AbstractOver the last decade, high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies have contributed to major advancements in genetics research, as these technologies now facilitate affordable mapping of the entire genome for large sets of individuals. Given this, genome-wide association studies are proving to be powerful tools in identifying genetic variants that have the capacity to modify the probability of developing a disease or trait of interest. However, when the study’s goal is to evaluate the effect of the presence of genetic variants mapping to specific chromosomes regions on a specific phenotype, the candidate loci approach is still preferred. Regardless of which approach is taken, such a large data set calls for the establishment and development of appropriate analytical methods in order to translate such knowledge into biological or clinical findings. Standard univariate tests often fail to identify informative genetic variants, especially when dealing with complex traits, which are more likely to result from a combination of rare and common variants and non-genetic determinants. These limitations can partially be overcome by multivariate methods, which allow for the identification of informative combinations of genetic variants and non-genetic features. Furthermore, such methods can help to generate additive genetic scores and risk stratification algorithms that, once extensively validated in independent cohorts, could serve as useful tools to assist clinicians in decision-making. This review aims to provide readers with an overview of the main multivariate methods for genetic data analysis that could be applied to the analysis of cardiovascular traits.
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