Cross‐Sectional Associations of Computed Tomography (CT)‐Derived Adipose Tissue Density and Adipokines: The Framingham Heart Study
Lee, Jane J.
Massaro, Joseph M.
Keaney, John F.
Vasan, Ramachandran S.
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CitationLee, Jane J., Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M. Massaro, John F. Keaney, Ramachandran S. Vasan, and Caroline S. Fox. 2016. “Cross‐Sectional Associations of Computed Tomography (CT)‐Derived Adipose Tissue Density and Adipokines: The Framingham Heart Study.” Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease 5 (3): e002545. doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.002545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.115.002545.
AbstractBackground: Excess accumulation of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with adverse levels of adipokines and cardiovascular disease risk. Whether fat quality is associated with adipokines has not been firmly established. This study examined the association between abdominal SAT and VAT density, an indirect measure of fat quality, with a panel of metabolic regulatory biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue or the liver independently of absolute fat volumes. Methods and Results: We evaluated 1829 Framingham Heart Study participants (44.9% women). Abdominal SAT and VAT density was estimated indirectly by adipose tissue attenuation using computed tomography. Adipokines included adiponectin, leptin receptor, leptin, fatty acid‐binding protein 4 (FABP‐4), retinol‐binding protein 4 (RBP‐4), and fetuin‐A. Fat density was associated with all the biomarkers evaluated, except fetuin‐A. Lower fat density (ie, more‐negative fat attenuation) was associated with lower adiponectin and leptin receptor, but higher leptin and FABP‐4 levels (all P<0.0001). SAT density was inversely associated with RPB‐4 in both sexes, whereas the association between VAT density and RPB‐4 was only observed in men (P<0.0001). In women, after additional adjustment for respective fat volume, SAT density retained the significant associations with adiponectin, leptin, FABP‐4, and RBP‐4; and VAT density with adiponectin only (all P<0.0001). In men, significant associations were maintained upon additional adjustment for respective fat volume (P<0.005). Conclusions: Lower abdominal fat density was associated with a profile of biomarkers suggestive of greater cardiometabolic risk. These observations support that fat density may be a valid biomarker of cardiometabolic risk.
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