Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. A case control study
Russnes, Kjell M.
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CitationRussnes, Kjell M., Elisabeth Möller, Kathryn M. Wilson, Monica Carlsen, Rune Blomhoff, Sigbjørn Smeland, Hans-Olov Adami, Henrik Grönberg, Lorelei A. Mucci, and Katarina Bälter. 2016. “Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. A case control study.” BMC Cancer 16 (1): 438. doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2486-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-016-2486-8.
AbstractBackground: The total intake of dietary antioxidants may reduce prostate cancer risk but available data are sparse and the possible role of supplements unclear. We investigated the potential association between total and dietary antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in a Swedish population. Methods: We used FFQ data from 1499 cases and 1112 controls in the population based case–control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). The ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay was used to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of diet and supplements. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of prostate cancer across quintiles of antioxidant intake from all foods, from fruit and vegetables only, and from dietary supplements using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Coffee comprised 62 % of the dietary antioxidant intake, tea 4 %, berries 4 %, chocolate 2 %, and boiled potatoes 2 %. In total 19 % and 13 % of the population took multivitamins and supplemental Vitamin C respectively, on a regular basis. Antioxidant intake from all foods and from fruits and vegetables separately measured by the FRAP assay was not associated with prostate cancer risk. For antioxidant intake from supplements we found a positive association with total, advanced, localized, high grade and low grade prostate cancer in those above median supplemental TAC intake of users compared to non-users (Adjusted ORs for total prostate cancer: 1.37, 95 % CI 1.08–1.73, advanced: 1.51, 95 % CI 1.11–2.06, localized: 1.36. 95 % CI 1.06–1.76, high grade 1.60, 95 % CI 1.06–2.40, low grade 1.36, 95 % CI 1.03–1.81). A high intake of coffee (≥6 cups/day) was associated with a possible risk reduction of fatal and significantly with reduced risk for high grade prostate cancer, adjusted OR: 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22–0.90), whereas a high intake of chocolate was positively associated with risk of total, advanced, localized and low grade disease (adjusted OR for total: 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12–1.82, advanced: 1.40, 95 % CI 1.01–1.96, localized: 1.43, 95 % CI 1.08–1.88, low-grade: 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03–1.93). Conclusions: Total antioxidant intake from diet was not associated with prostate cancer risk. Supplement use may be associated with greater risk of disease. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2486-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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