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dc.contributor.authorHilty, Markusen_US
dc.contributor.authorWüthrich, Danielen_US
dc.contributor.authorSalter, Susannah J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEngel, Hansjürgen_US
dc.contributor.authorCampbell, Samuelen_US
dc.contributor.authorSá-Leão, Raquelen_US
dc.contributor.authorde Lencastre, Hermíniaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHermans, Peteren_US
dc.contributor.authorSadowy, Ewaen_US
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Paulen_US
dc.contributor.authorChewapreecha, Claireen_US
dc.contributor.authorDiggle, Mathewen_US
dc.contributor.authorPluschke, Gerden_US
dc.contributor.authorMcGee, Lesleyen_US
dc.contributor.authorKöseoğlu Eser, Özgenen_US
dc.contributor.authorLow, Donald E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith-Vaughan, Heidien_US
dc.contributor.authorEndimiani, Andreaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKüffer, Marianneen_US
dc.contributor.authorDupasquier, Mélanieen_US
dc.contributor.authorBeaudoing, Emmanuelen_US
dc.contributor.authorWeber, Johannen_US
dc.contributor.authorBruggmann, Rémyen_US
dc.contributor.authorHanage, William P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorParkhill, Julianen_US
dc.contributor.authorHathaway, Lucy J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMühlemann, Kathrinen_US
dc.contributor.authorBentley, Stephen D.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-11T20:27:53Z
dc.date.issued2014en_US
dc.identifier.citationHilty, M., D. Wüthrich, S. J. Salter, H. Engel, S. Campbell, R. Sá-Leão, H. de Lencastre, et al. 2014. “Global Phylogenomic Analysis of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Reveals a Deep-Branching Classic Lineage That Is Distinct from Multiple Sporadic Lineages.” Genome Biology and Evolution 6 (12): 3281-3294. doi:10.1093/gbe/evu263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evu263.en
dc.identifier.issn1759-6653en
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:29002659
dc.description.abstractThe surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). However, nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (non-Ec-Sp) have also been isolated globally, mainly in carriage studies. It is unknown if non-Ec-Sp evolve sporadically, if they have high antibiotic nonsusceptiblity rates and a unique, specific gene content. Here, whole-genome sequencing of 131 non-Ec-Sp isolates sourced from 17 different locations around the world was performed. Results revealed a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages. The sporadic lineages clustered with a previously sequenced, global collection of encapsulated S. pneumoniae (Ec-Sp) isolates while the classic lineage is comprised mainly of the frequently identified multilocus sequences types (STs) ST344 (n = 39) and ST448 (n = 40). All ST344 and nine ST448 isolates had high nonsusceptiblity rates to β-lactams and other antimicrobials. Analysis of the accessory genome reveals that the classic non-Ec-Sp contained an increased number of mobile elements, than Ec-Sp and sporadic non-Ec-Sp. Performing adherence assays to human epithelial cells for selected classic and sporadic non-Ec-Sp revealed that the presence of a integrative conjugative element (ICE) results in increased adherence to human epithelial cells (P = 0.005). In contrast, sporadic non-Ec-Sp lacking the ICE had greater growth in vitro possibly resulting in improved fitness. In conclusion, non-Ec-Sp isolates from the classic lineage have evolved separately. They have spread globally, are well adapted to nasopharyngeal carriage and are able to coexist with Ec-Sp. Due to continued use of PCV, non-Ec-Sp may become more prevalent.en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1093/gbe/evu263en
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4986459/pdf/en
dash.licenseLAAen_US
dc.subjectpneumococcal isolatesen
dc.subjectwhole-genome sequencingen
dc.subjectcomparative genomicsen
dc.subjectintegrative conjugative elementsen
dc.subjectantibiotic nonsusceptibilityen
dc.titleGlobal Phylogenomic Analysis of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Reveals a Deep-Branching Classic Lineage That Is Distinct from Multiple Sporadic Lineagesen
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden
dc.relation.journalGenome Biology and Evolutionen
dash.depositing.authorHanage, William P.en_US
dc.date.available2016-10-11T20:27:53Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/gbe/evu263*
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedHanage, William


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