Leaflet Area as a Determinant of Tricuspid Regurgitation Severity in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension
Gibbs, J. S. R.
Rudski, L. G.
Handschumacher, M. D.
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CitationAfilalo, J., J. Grapsa, P. Nihoyannopoulos, J. Beaudoin, J. S. R. Gibbs, R. N. Channick, D. Langleben, et al. 2015. “Leaflet Area as a Determinant of Tricuspid Regurgitation Severity in Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension.” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging 8 (5) (May 14): e002714–e002714. doi:10.1161/circimaging.114.002714.
AbstractBackground: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a risk factor for mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH). TR severity varies among patients with comparable degrees of PH and right ventricular (RV) remodeling. The contribution of leaflet adaptation to the pathophysiology of TR has yet to be examined. We hypothesized that tricuspid leaflet area (TLA) is increased in PH, and that its size relative to RV remodeling determines TR severity. Methods and Results: A prospective cohort of 255 patients with PH from pre- and post-capillary etiologies was assembled from two centers. Patients underwent a 3-D echocardiogram focused on the tricuspid apparatus. TLA was measured with the Omni custom software package. Compared with normal controls, PH patients had a twofold increase in RV volumes, 62% increase in annulus area, and 49% increase in TLA. Those with severe TR demonstrated inadequate increase in TLA relative to the closure area, such that the ratio of TLA-to-closure area <1.78 was highly predictive of severe TR (odds ratio 68.7; 95% CI 16.2, 292.7). The median vena contracta width was 8.5 mm in the group with small TLA and large closure area as opposed to 4.8 mm in the group with large TLA and large closure area. Conclusions: TLA plays a significant role in determining which patients with PH develop severe functional TR. The ratio of TLA-to-closure area, reflecting the balance between leaflet adaptation vs. annular dilation and tethering forces, is an indicator of TR severity that may identify which patients stand to benefit from leaflet augmentation during tricuspid valve repair.
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