Early Repolarization Pattern in Competitive Athletes: Clinical Correlates and the Effects of Exercise Training
Noseworthy, P. A.
Wang, Thomas J.
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CitationNoseworthy, P. A., R. Weiner, J. Kim, V. Keelara, F. Wang, B. Berkstresser, M. J. Wood, et al. 2011. “Early Repolarization Pattern in Competitive Athletes: Clinical Correlates and the Effects of Exercise Training.” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 4 (4) (May 4): 432–440. doi:10.1161/circep.111.962852.
AbstractBackground: Inferior lead early repolarization pattern (ERP) has recently been associated with sudden cardiac death. Although ERP is common among athletes, prevalence, ECG lead distribution, clinical characteristics, and effects of physical training remain uncertain. We sought to examine the non-anterior early repolarization pattern (ERP) in competitive athletes. Methods and Results: ERP was assessed in a cross-sectional cohort of collegiate athletes (n=879). The relationship between ERP and cardiac structure were then examined in a longitudinal subgroup (n=146) before and after a 90-day period of exercise training. ERP was defined as J-point elevation ≥ 0.1 mV in at least two leads within a non-anterior territory (inferior [II, III, aVF] or lateral [I, aVL, V4-V6]). Non-anterior ERP was present in 25.1% (221/879) of athletes including the inferior subtype in 3.8% (33/879). Exercise training led to significant increases in the prevalence of ERP and the inferior subtype but there were no associations between ERP and echocardiographic measures of left ventricular remodeling. In a multivariable model, ERP was associated with black race (OR 5.84, CI 3.54-9.61, p<0.001), increased QRS voltage (OR 2.08, CI 1.71-2.52, p<0.001), and slower HR (OR 1.54, CI 1.26-1.87, p<0.001). Conclusions: Non-anterior ERP including the inferior subtype are common and have strong clinical associations among competitive athletes. The finding of increased ERP prevalence following intense physical training establishes a strong association between exercise and the ERP.
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