The 1-by-3 Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer for Measurement of the Irreversibility of the Hygroscopic Growth Factor
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CitationRosenoern, T., D. Paulsen, and Scot T. Martin. 2009. The 1-by-3 tandem differential mobility analyzer for measurement of the irreversibility of the hygroscopic growth factor. Aerosol Science and Technology 43(7): 641-652.
AbstractA new instrument, namely the 1 × 3 tandem differential mobility analyzer (1 × 3-TDMA), has been developed. Its primary measurement is the irreversibility of the hygroscopic growth factor of aerosol particles. The instrument uses the hysteresis of phase transitions to infer the solid or aqueous state of the particles. A first DMA passes particles of a selected electric mobility at relative humidity RH0. Exiting this DMA, the particles are split into three separate flows. The first flow is exposed to RH0 → (RH0+ δ) → RH0 in a deliquescence test before passing through a second DMA that is set to the same electric mobility as the first DMA. The second flow passes directly to a third DMA without change in RH, thereby serving as a reference arm. This DMA is also set to the same electric mobility as the first DMA. The transmission ratio of the 1 × 3-TDMA is defined as the particle concentration passing the deliquescence test divided by that passing through the reference arm. The transmission ratio is unity in the absence of deliquescence and zero when a phase transition occurs, at least for ideal instrument performance in application to a test aerosol of fully deliquesceable particles. For the third flow passing out of the first DMA, an efflorescence test is run by using the RH profile of RH0 → (RH0-δ) → RH0 before passing through a fourth DMA. A full data set for the 1 × 3-TDMA is obtained by scanning RH0, typically from 20 to 85%. In the present paper, the 1 × 3-TDMA instrument is described, and laboratory data are presented for the phase transitions of externally mixed aerosols of aqueous and solid sodium chloride particles, aqueous and solid ammonium sulfate particles, and their mixtures, as well as a mixture of aqueous and solid sea salt particles. The observed transmission ratio is compared to a model analysis. The intent behind the development of this instrument is to deploy it for ﬁeld measurements and use observations of the irreversibility of the growth factors of atmospheric particles as markers of their physical state.
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