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dc.contributor.authorOkbay, Aysuen_US
dc.contributor.authorBeauchamp, Jonathan P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFontana, Mark A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, James J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPers, Tune H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRietveld, Cornelius A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTurley, Patricken_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Guo-Boen_US
dc.contributor.authorEmilsson, Valuren_US
dc.contributor.authorMeddens, S. Fleur W.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOskarsson, Svenen_US
dc.contributor.authorPickrell, Joseph K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorThom, Kevinen_US
dc.contributor.authorTimshel, Pascalen_US
dc.contributor.authorde Vlaming, Ronalden_US
dc.contributor.authorAbdellaoui, Abdelen_US
dc.contributor.authorAhluwalia, Tarunveer S.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBacelis, Jonasen_US
dc.contributor.authorBaumbach, Clemensen_US
dc.contributor.authorBjornsdottir, Gydaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBrandsma, Johannes H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorConcas, Maria Pinaen_US
dc.contributor.authorDerringer, Jaimeen_US
dc.contributor.authorFurlotte, Nicholas A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGalesloot, Tessel E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGirotto, Giorgiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorGupta, Richaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHall, Leanne M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Sarah E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHofer, Edithen_US
dc.contributor.authorHorikoshi, Momokoen_US
dc.contributor.authorHuffman, Jennifer E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKaasik, Kadrien_US
dc.contributor.authorKalafati, Ioanna P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKarlsson, Roberten_US
dc.contributor.authorKong, Augustineen_US
dc.contributor.authorLahti, Jarien_US
dc.contributor.authorvan der Lee, Sven J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorde Leeuw, Christiaanen_US
dc.contributor.authorLind, Penelope A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLindgren, Karl-Oskaren_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Tianen_US
dc.contributor.authorMangino, Massimoen_US
dc.contributor.authorMarten, Jonathanen_US
dc.contributor.authorMihailov, Evelinen_US
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Michael B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorvan der Most, Peter J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOldmeadow, Christopheren_US
dc.contributor.authorPayton, Antonyen_US
dc.contributor.authorPervjakova, Nataliaen_US
dc.contributor.authorPeyrot, Wouter J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorQian, Yongen_US
dc.contributor.authorRaitakari, Ollien_US
dc.contributor.authorRueedi, Ricoen_US
dc.contributor.authorSalvi, Erikaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Börgeen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchraut, Katharina E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorShi, Jianxinen_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Albert V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPoot, Raymond A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPourcain, Beateen_US
dc.contributor.authorTeumer, Alexanderen_US
dc.contributor.authorThorleifsson, Gudmaren_US
dc.contributor.authorVerweij, Nieken_US
dc.contributor.authorVuckovic, Draganaen_US
dc.contributor.authorWellmann, Juergenen_US
dc.contributor.authorWestra, Harm-Janen_US
dc.contributor.authorYang, Jingyunen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Weien_US
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Zhihongen_US
dc.contributor.authorAlizadeh, Behrooz Z.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAmin, Najafen_US
dc.contributor.authorBakshi, Andrewen_US
dc.contributor.authorBaumeister, Sebastian E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBiino, Ginevraen_US
dc.contributor.authorBønnelykke, Klausen_US
dc.contributor.authorBoyle, Patricia A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCampbell, Harryen_US
dc.contributor.authorCappuccio, Francesco P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDavies, Gailen_US
dc.contributor.authorDe Neve, Jan-Emmanuelen_US
dc.contributor.authorDeloukas, Panosen_US
dc.contributor.authorDemuth, Iljaen_US
dc.contributor.authorDing, Junen_US
dc.contributor.authorEibich, Peteren_US
dc.contributor.authorEisele, Lewinen_US
dc.contributor.authorEklund, Niinaen_US
dc.contributor.authorEvans68, David M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFaul, Jessica D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFeitosa, Mary F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorForstner, Andreas J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGandin, Ilariaen_US
dc.contributor.authorGunnarsson, Bjarnien_US
dc.contributor.authorHalldórsson, Bjarni V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Tamara B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHeath, Andrew C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHocking, Lynne J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHolliday, Elizabeth G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHomuth, Georgen_US
dc.contributor.authorHoran, Michael A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHottenga, Jouke-Janen_US
dc.contributor.authorde Jager, Philip L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJoshi, Peter K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJugessur, Astananden_US
dc.contributor.authorKaakinen, Marika A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKähönen, Mikaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKanoni, Stavroulaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKeltigangas-Järvinen, Liisaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKolcic, Ivanaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKoskinen, Seppoen_US
dc.contributor.authorKraja, Aldi T.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKroh, Martinen_US
dc.contributor.authorKutalik, Zoltanen_US
dc.contributor.authorLatvala, Anttien_US
dc.contributor.authorLauner, Lenore J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLebreton, Maël P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLevinson, Douglas F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLichtenstein, Paulen_US
dc.contributor.authorLichtner, Peteren_US
dc.contributor.authorLiewald, David C.M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLoukola, Anuen_US
dc.contributor.authorMadden, Pamela A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMägi, Reediken_US
dc.contributor.authorMäki-Opas, Tomien_US
dc.contributor.authorMarioni, Riccardo E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMarques-Vidal, Pedroen_US
dc.contributor.authorMeddens, Gerardus A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMcMahon, Georgeen_US
dc.contributor.authorMeisinger, Christaen_US
dc.contributor.authorMeitinger, Thomasen_US
dc.contributor.authorMilaneschi, Yusplitrien_US
dc.contributor.authorMilani, Lilien_US
dc.contributor.authorMontgomery, Grant W.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMyhre, Ronnyen_US
dc.contributor.authorNelson, Christopher P.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNyholt, Dale R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOllier, William E.R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPalotie, Aarnoen_US
dc.contributor.authorPaternoster, Laviniaen_US
dc.contributor.authorPedersen, Nancy L.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPetrovic, Katja E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPorteous, David J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRäikkönen, Katrien_US
dc.contributor.authorRing, Susan M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRobino, Antoniettaen_US
dc.contributor.authorRostapshova, Olgaen_US
dc.contributor.authorRudan, Igoren_US
dc.contributor.authorRustichini, Aldoen_US
dc.contributor.authorSalomaa, Veikkoen_US
dc.contributor.authorSanders, Alan R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSarin, Antti-Pekkaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Helenaen_US
dc.contributor.authorScott, Rodney J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Blair H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Jennifer A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorStaessen, Jan A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSteinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabethen_US
dc.contributor.authorStrauch, Konstantinen_US
dc.contributor.authorTerracciano, Antonioen_US
dc.contributor.authorTobin, Martin D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorUlivi, Sheilaen_US
dc.contributor.authorVaccargiu, Simonaen_US
dc.contributor.authorQuaye, Lydiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorvan Rooij, Frank J.A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVenturini, Cristinaen_US
dc.contributor.authorVinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVölker, Uween_US
dc.contributor.authorVölzke, Henryen_US
dc.contributor.authorVonk, Judith M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVozzi, Diegoen_US
dc.contributor.authorWaage, Johannesen_US
dc.contributor.authorWare, Erin B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWillemsen, Gonnekeen_US
dc.contributor.authorAttia, John R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBennett, David A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBerger, Klausen_US
dc.contributor.authorBertram, Larsen_US
dc.contributor.authorBisgaard, Hansen_US
dc.contributor.authorBoomsma, Dorret I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBorecki, Ingrid B.en_US
dc.contributor.authorBultmann, Uteen_US
dc.contributor.authorChabris, Christopher F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCucca, Francescoen_US
dc.contributor.authorCusi, Danieleen_US
dc.contributor.authorDeary, Ian J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorDedoussis, George V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorvan Duijn, Cornelia M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEriksson, Johan G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorFranke, Barbaraen_US
dc.contributor.authorFranke, Ludeen_US
dc.contributor.authorGasparini, Paoloen_US
dc.contributor.authorGejman, Pablo V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGieger, Christianen_US
dc.contributor.authorGrabe, Hans-Jörgenen_US
dc.contributor.authorGratten, Jacoben_US
dc.contributor.authorGroenen, Patrick J.F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGudnason, Vilmunduren_US
dc.contributor.authorvan der Harst, Pimen_US
dc.contributor.authorHayward, Carolineen_US
dc.contributor.authorHinds, David A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHoffmann, Wolfgangen_US
dc.contributor.authorHyppönen, Elinaen_US
dc.contributor.authorIacono, William G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorJacobsson, Boen_US
dc.contributor.authorJärvelin, Marjo-Riittaen_US
dc.contributor.authorJöckel, Karl-Heinzen_US
dc.contributor.authorKaprio, Jaakkoen_US
dc.contributor.authorKardia, Sharon L.R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLehtimäki, Terhoen_US
dc.contributor.authorLehrer, Steven F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMagnusson, Patrik K.E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMartin, Nicholas G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMcGue, Matten_US
dc.contributor.authorMetspalu, Andresen_US
dc.contributor.authorPendleton, Neilen_US
dc.contributor.authorPenninx, Brenda W.J.H.en_US
dc.contributor.authorPerola, Markusen_US
dc.contributor.authorPirastu, Nicolaen_US
dc.contributor.authorPirastu, Marioen_US
dc.contributor.authorPolasek, Ozrenen_US
dc.contributor.authorPosthuma, Danielleen_US
dc.contributor.authorPower, Christineen_US
dc.contributor.authorProvince, Michael A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSamani, Nilesh J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSchlessinger, Daviden_US
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, Reinholden_US
dc.contributor.authorSørensen, Thorkild I.A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSpector, Tim D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorStefansson, Karien_US
dc.contributor.authorThorsteinsdottir, Unnuren_US
dc.contributor.authorThurik, A. Royen_US
dc.contributor.authorTimpson, Nicholas J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTiemeier, Henningen_US
dc.contributor.authorTung, Joyce Y.en_US
dc.contributor.authorUitterlinden, André G.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVitart, Veroniqueen_US
dc.contributor.authorVollenweider, Peteren_US
dc.contributor.authorWeir, David R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWilson, James F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWright, Alan F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorConley, Dalton C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKrueger, Robert F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, George Daveyen_US
dc.contributor.authorHofman, Alberten_US
dc.contributor.authorLaibson, David I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMedland, Sarah E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Michelle N.en_US
dc.contributor.authorYang, Jianen_US
dc.contributor.authorJohannesson, Magnusen_US
dc.contributor.authorVisscher, Peter M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorEsko, Tõnuen_US
dc.contributor.authorKoellinger, Philipp D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorCesarini, Daviden_US
dc.contributor.authorBenjamin, Daniel J.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-12-02T15:25:24Z
dc.date.issued2016en_US
dc.identifier.citationOkbay, A., J. P. Beauchamp, M. A. Fontana, J. J. Lee, T. H. Pers, C. A. Rietveld, P. Turley, et al. 2016. “Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.” Nature 533 (7604): 539-542. doi:10.1038/nature17671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17671.en
dc.identifier.issn0028-0836en
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:29626149
dc.description.abstractSummary Educational attainment (EA) is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are also estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. We report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for EA that extends our earlier discovery sample1,2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We now identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioral phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because EA is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric disease.en
dc.language.isoen_USen
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1038/nature17671en
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4883595/pdf/en
dash.licenseLAAen_US
dc.titleGenome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainmenten
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden
dc.relation.journalNatureen
dash.depositing.authorPers, Tune H.en_US
dc.date.available2016-12-02T15:25:24Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/nature17671*
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedPers, Tune H
dash.contributor.affiliatedWestra, Harm-Jan
dash.contributor.affiliatedPalotie, Aarno
dash.contributor.affiliatedDe Jager, Philip
dash.contributor.affiliatedLaibson, David
dash.contributor.affiliatedEsko, Tõnu
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0003-1982-6569


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