Charge Transfer Directed Radical Substitution Enables para-Selective C–H Functionalization
Boursalian, Gregory B.
Ham, Won Seok
Mazzotti, Anthony R.
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CitationBoursalian, Gregory B., Won Seok Ham, Anthony R. Mazzotti, and Tobias Ritter. 2016. “Charge Transfer Directed Radical Substitution Enables para-Selective C–H Functionalization.” Nature chemistry 8 (8): 810-815. doi:10.1038/nchem.2529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2529.
AbstractEfficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho- and meta- selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein, we introduce a previously unappreciated concept which enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit areneto-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate that the selectivity is predictable by a simple theoretical tool and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of charge transfer directed radical substitution could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions.
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