Comparison of Capacity Retention Rates During Cycling of Quinone-Bromide Flow Batteries
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CitationGerhardt, Michael R., Eugene S. Beh, Liuchuan Tong, Roy G. Gordon, and Michael J. Aziz. 2016. Comparison of Capacity Retention Rates During Cycling of Quinone-Bromide Flow Batteries. MRS Advances: 1–8. doi:10.1557/adv.2016.667.
AbstractWe use cyclic charge-discharge experiments to evaluate the capacity retention rates of two quinone-bromide flow batteries (QBFBs). These aqueous QBFBs use a negative electrolyte containing either anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS) or anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) dissolved in sulfuric acid, and a positive electrolyte containing bromine and hydrobromic acid. We find that the AQS cell exhibits a significantly lower capacity retention rate than the AQDS cell. The observed AQS capacity fade is corroborated by NMR evidence that suggests the formation of hydroxylated products in the electrolyte in place of AQS. We further cycle the AQDS cell and observe a capacity fade rate extrapolating to 30% loss of active species after 5000 cycles. After about 180 cycles, bromine crossover leads to sufficient electrolyte imbalance to accelerate the capacity fade rate, indicating that the actual realization of long cycle life will require bromine rebalancing or a membrane less permeable than Nafion® to molecular bromine.
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