Depression at antiretroviral therapy initiation and clinical outcomes among a cohort of Tanzanian women living with HIV
Smith Fawzi, Mary C.
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CitationSudfeld, Christopher R., Sylvia Kaaya, Nilupa S. Gunaratna, Fedinand Mugusi, Wafaie W. Fawzi, Said Aboud, and Mary C. Smith Fawzi. 2017. “Depression at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Clinical Outcomes Among a Cohort of Tanzanian Women Living with HIV.” AIDS 31 (2) (January): 263–271. doi:10.1097/qad.0000000000001323.
The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of depression at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with mortality and clinical outcomes among Tanzanian women living with HIV.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1487 women who initiated ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using a Tanzanian-adapted and validated version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Participants attended monthly clinic visits during the first 2 years of ART and CD4 T-cell counts were assessed every 4 months. Proportional hazard models were used to assess the relationship of depression with mortality and clinical outcomes.
Symptoms consistent with depression were prevalent among 57.8% of women at ART initiation. After multivariate adjustment, including social support and stigma, depression at ART initiation was associated with increased risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 1.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-3.20; P = 0.01] and incidence of severe anemia (hemoglobin <8.5 g/dl; HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.07-2.37; P = 0.02). Under the assumption of causality, we estimate 36.1% (95% CI: 13.6-55.1%) of deaths among the study cohort were attributable to depression and its consequences. Depression was not significantly associated with trajectory of CD4 T-cell reconstitution or the risk of immunologic failure (P values >0.05).
Elimination of depression may reduce mortality during the first 2 years of ART by one-third in our study cohort. Randomized trials and rigorous implementation studies are needed to evaluate the individual and population-level effects of integrated mental health interventions and HIV treatment approaches in resource-limited settings.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:30208856
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