A 1.9 Earth Radius Rocky Planet and the Discovery of a Non-Transiting Planet in the Kepler-20 System

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A 1.9 Earth Radius Rocky Planet and the Discovery of a Non-Transiting Planet in the Kepler-20 System

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Title: A 1.9 Earth Radius Rocky Planet and the Discovery of a Non-Transiting Planet in the Kepler-20 System
Author: Buchhave, Lars A.; Dressing, Courtney D.; Dumusque, Xavier; Rice, Ken; Vanderburg, Andrew Michael; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Lopez, Eric; Lundkvist, Mia S.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Affer, Laura; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Charbonneau, David; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Cosentino, Rosario; Figueira, Pedro; Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M.; Harutyunyan, Avet; Haywood, Raphaelle D.; Johnson, John Asher; Latham, David Winslow; Lovis, Christophe; Malavolta, Luca; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Motalebi, Fatemeh; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Pepe, Francesco; Phillips, David F.; Piotto, Giampaolo; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.

Citation: Buchhave, Lars A., Courtney D. Dressing, Xavier Dumusque, Ken Rice, Andrew Vanderburg, Annelies Mortier, Mercedes Lopez-Morales, et al. 2016. A 1.9 Earth Radius Rocky Planet and the Discovery of a Non-Transiting Planet in the Kepler-20 System. The Astronomical Journal 152, no. 6: 160. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/160.
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Abstract: Kepler-20 is a solar-type star (V = 12.5) hosting a compact system of five transiting planets, all packed within the orbital distance of Mercury in our own solar system. A transition from rocky to gaseous planets with a planetary transition radius of ~1.6 ${R}_{\oplus }$ has recently been proposed by several articles in the literature. Kepler-20b (${R}_{p}$ ~ 1.9 ${R}_{\oplus }$) has a size beyond this transition radius; however, previous mass measurements were not sufficiently precise to allow definite conclusions to be drawn regarding its composition. We present new mass measurements of three of the planets in the Kepler-20 system that are facilitated by 104 radial velocity measurements from the HARPS-N spectrograph and 30 archival Keck/HIRES observations, as well as an updated photometric analysis of the Kepler data and an asteroseismic analysis of the host star (${M}_{\star }$ = $0.948\pm 0.051$ ${M}_{\odot }$ and ${R}_{\star }$ = $0.964\pm 0.018$ ${R}_{\odot }$). Kepler-20b is a ${1.868}_{-0.034}^{+0.066}$ ${R}_{\oplus }$ planet in a 3.7 day period with a mass of ${9.70}_{-1.44}^{+1.41}$ ${M}_{\oplus }$, resulting in a mean density of ${8.2}_{-1.3}^{+1.5}$ ${\rm{g}}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}$, indicating a rocky composition with an iron-to-silicate ratio consistent with that of the Earth. This makes Kepler-20b the most massive planet with a rocky composition found to date. Furthermore, we report the discovery of an additional non-transiting planet with a minimum mass of ${19.96}_{-3.61}^{+3.08}$ ${M}_{\oplus }$ and an orbital period of ~34 days in the gap between Kepler-20f (P ~ 11 days) and Kepler-20d (P ~ 78 days).
Published Version: doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/160
Other Sources: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.06836.pdf
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Open Access Policy Articles, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#OAP
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:30410817
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