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dc.contributor.authorBuchhave, Lars A.
dc.contributor.authorDressing, Courtney D.
dc.contributor.authorDumusque, Xavier
dc.contributor.authorRice, Ken
dc.contributor.authorVanderburg, Andrew Michael
dc.contributor.authorMortier, Annelies
dc.contributor.authorLopez-Morales, Mercedes
dc.contributor.authorLopez, Eric
dc.contributor.authorLundkvist, Mia S.
dc.contributor.authorKjeldsen, Hans
dc.contributor.authorAffer, Laura
dc.contributor.authorBonomo, Aldo S.
dc.contributor.authorCharbonneau, David
dc.contributor.authorCameron, Andrew Collier
dc.contributor.authorCosentino, Rosario
dc.contributor.authorFigueira, Pedro
dc.contributor.authorFiorenzano, Aldo F. M.
dc.contributor.authorHarutyunyan, Avet
dc.contributor.authorHaywood, Raphaelle D.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, John Asher
dc.contributor.authorLatham, David Winslow
dc.contributor.authorLovis, Christophe
dc.contributor.authorMalavolta, Luca
dc.contributor.authorMayor, Michel
dc.contributor.authorMicela, Giusi
dc.contributor.authorMolinari, Emilio
dc.contributor.authorMotalebi, Fatemeh
dc.contributor.authorNascimbeni, Valerio
dc.contributor.authorPepe, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, David F.
dc.contributor.authorPiotto, Giampaolo
dc.contributor.authorPollacco, Don
dc.contributor.authorQueloz, Didier
dc.contributor.authorSasselov, Dimitar D.
dc.contributor.authorSégransan, Damien
dc.contributor.authorSozzetti, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorUdry, Stéphane
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Chris
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-22T20:31:23Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationBuchhave, Lars A., Courtney D. Dressing, Xavier Dumusque, Ken Rice, Andrew Vanderburg, Annelies Mortier, Mercedes Lopez-Morales, et al. 2016. A 1.9 Earth Radius Rocky Planet and the Discovery of a Non-Transiting Planet in the Kepler-20 System. The Astronomical Journal 152, no. 6: 160. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/160.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1538-3881en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:30410817
dc.description.abstractKepler-20 is a solar-type star (V = 12.5) hosting a compact system of five transiting planets, all packed within the orbital distance of Mercury in our own solar system. A transition from rocky to gaseous planets with a planetary transition radius of ~1.6 ${R}_{\oplus }$ has recently been proposed by several articles in the literature. Kepler-20b (${R}_{p}$ ~ 1.9 ${R}_{\oplus }$) has a size beyond this transition radius; however, previous mass measurements were not sufficiently precise to allow definite conclusions to be drawn regarding its composition. We present new mass measurements of three of the planets in the Kepler-20 system that are facilitated by 104 radial velocity measurements from the HARPS-N spectrograph and 30 archival Keck/HIRES observations, as well as an updated photometric analysis of the Kepler data and an asteroseismic analysis of the host star (${M}_{\star }$ = $0.948\pm 0.051$ ${M}_{\odot }$ and ${R}_{\star }$ = $0.964\pm 0.018$ ${R}_{\odot }$). Kepler-20b is a ${1.868}_{-0.034}^{+0.066}$ ${R}_{\oplus }$ planet in a 3.7 day period with a mass of ${9.70}_{-1.44}^{+1.41}$ ${M}_{\oplus }$, resulting in a mean density of ${8.2}_{-1.3}^{+1.5}$ ${\rm{g}}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}$, indicating a rocky composition with an iron-to-silicate ratio consistent with that of the Earth. This makes Kepler-20b the most massive planet with a rocky composition found to date. Furthermore, we report the discovery of an additional non-transiting planet with a minimum mass of ${19.96}_{-3.61}^{+3.08}$ ${M}_{\oplus }$ and an orbital period of ~34 days in the gap between Kepler-20f (P ~ 11 days) and Kepler-20d (P ~ 78 days).en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAstronomyen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Astronomical Societyen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/160en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttps://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.06836.pdfen_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.subjectplanetary systemsen_US
dc.subjectplanets and satellites: compositionen_US
dc.subjectstars: individual (Kepler-20 = KOI-70, KIC 6850504en_US
dc.subjecttechniques: radial velocitiesen_US
dc.titleA 1.9 Earth Radius Rocky Planet and the Discovery of a Non-Transiting Planet in the Kepler-20 Systemen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscripten_US
dc.relation.journalThe Astronomical Journalen_US
dash.depositing.authorCharbonneau, David
dc.date.available2017-02-22T20:31:23Z
dc.identifier.doi10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/160*
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedVanderburg, Andrew
dash.contributor.affiliatedLatham, David
dash.contributor.affiliatedJohnson, John
dash.contributor.affiliatedPhillips, David
dash.contributor.affiliatedSasselov, Dimitar
dash.contributor.affiliatedCharbonneau, David
dash.contributor.affiliatedHaywood, Raphaelle


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