A Jet Break in the X-Ray Light Curve of Short Grb 111020a: Implications for Energetics and Rates
Fox, D. B.
Podsiadlowski, P.Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationFong, W., E. Berger, R. Margutti, B. A. Zauderer, E. Troja, I. Czekala, R. Chornock, et al. 2012. A Jet Break in the X-Ray Light Curve of Short Grb 111020a: Implications for Energetics and Rates. The Astrophysical Journal 756, no. 2: 189. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/756/2/189.
AbstractWe present broad-band observations of the afterglow and environment of the short GRB 111020A. An extensive X-ray light curve from Swift/XRT, XMM-Newton and Chandra, spanning ∼ 100 seconds to 10 days after the burst, reveals a significant break at δt ≈2 days with pre- and post-break decline rates of αX,1 ≈ −0.78 and αX,2 . −1.7, respectively. Interpreted as a jet break, we infer a collimated outflow with an opening angle of θj ≈ 3 − 8◦. The resulting beaming-corrected γ-ray (10 − 1000 keV band) and blastwave kinetic energies are (2−3)×1048 erg and (0.3−2)×1049 erg, respectively, with the range depending on the unknown redshift of the burst. We report a radio afterglow limit of <39 µJy (3σ) from EVLA observations which, along with our finding that νc < νX , constrains the circumburst density to n0 ∼ 0.01 − 0.1 cm−3. Optical observations provide an afterglow limit of i & 24.4 mag at 18 hours after the burst, and reveal a potential host galaxy with i ≈ 24.3 mag. The sub-arcsecond localization from Chandra provides a precise offset of 0.80′′ ±0.11′′ (1σ) from this galaxy corresponding to an offset of 5−7 kpc for z = 0.5−1.5. We find a high excess neutral Hydrogen column density of (7.5 ± 2.0) × 1021 cm−2 (z = 0). Our observations demonstrate that a growing fraction of short GRBs are collimated which may lead to a true event rate of & 100 − 1000 Gpc−3 yr−1, in good agreement with the NS-NS merger rate of ≈ 200 − 3000 Gpc−3 yr−1. This consistency is promising for coincident short GRB-gravitational wave searches in the forthcoming era of Advanced LIGO/VIRGO.
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