Evaluation of the airborne quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) measurements of the carbon and greenhouse gas suite – CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO – during the CalNex and HIPPO campaigns

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Evaluation of the airborne quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) measurements of the carbon and greenhouse gas suite – CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO – during the CalNex and HIPPO campaigns

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Title: Evaluation of the airborne quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) measurements of the carbon and greenhouse gas suite – CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO – during the CalNex and HIPPO campaigns
Author: Santoni, G; Daube, Bruce C.; Kort, E. A.; Jiménez, R.; Park, Sunyoung; Pittman, J. V.; Gottlieb, Elaine Webster; Xiang, Bin; Zahniser, M. S.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Hall, B.; Hintsa, E. J.; Moore, F. L.; Elkins, J. W.; Hurst, D. F.; Stephens, B. B.; Bent, J.; Wofsy, Steven Charles

Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.

Citation: Santoni, G. W., B. C. Daube, E. A. Kort, R. Jiménez, S. Park, J. V. Pittman, E. Gottlieb, et al. 2014. “Evaluation of the Airborne Quantum Cascade Laser Spectrometer (QCLS) Measurements of the Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Suite – CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO – During the CalNex and HIPPO Campaigns.” In Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 7, no. 6: 1509–1526. doi:10.5194/amt-7-1509-2014.
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Abstract: We present an evaluation of aircraft observations of the carbon and greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO using a direct-absorption pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) operated during the HIPPO and CalNex airborne experiments. The QCLS made continuous 1 Hz measurements with 1σ Allan precisions of 20, 0.5, 0.09, and 0.15 ppb for CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, respectively, over > 500 flight hours on 79 research flights. The QCLS measurements are compared to two vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) CO instruments (CalNex and HIPPO), a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) measuring CO2 and CH4 (CalNex), two broadband non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectrometers measuring CO2 (HIPPO), two onboard gas chromatographs measuring a variety of chemical species including CH4, N2O, and CO (HIPPO), and various flask-based measurements of all four species. QCLS measurements are tied to NOAA and WMO standards using an in-flight calibration system, and mean differences when compared to NOAA CCG flask data over the 59 HIPPO research flights were 100, 1, 1, and 2 ppb for CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO, respectively. The details of the end-to-end calibration procedures and the data quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) are presented. Specifically, we discuss our practices for the traceability of standards given uncertainties in calibration cylinders, isotopic and surface effects for the long-lived greenhouse gas tracers, interpolation techniques for in-flight calibrations, and the effects of instrument linearity on retrieved mole fractions.
Published Version: doi:10.5194/amt-7-1509-2014
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Open Access Policy Articles, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#OAP
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:30761880
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