Pediatric Perioperative Stress Responses and Anesthesia

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Pediatric Perioperative Stress Responses and Anesthesia

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Title: Pediatric Perioperative Stress Responses and Anesthesia
Author: Yuki, Koichi; Matsunami, Erika; Tazawa, Kazumasa; Wang, Wei; DiNardo, James A.; Koutsogiannaki, Sophia

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Citation: Yuki, Koichi, Erika Matsunami, Kazumasa Tazawa, Wei Wang, James A. DiNardo, and Sophia Koutsogiannaki. 2017. “Pediatric Perioperative Stress Responses and Anesthesia.” Translational perioperative and pain medicine 2 (1): 1-12.
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Abstract: Summary Surgical stress responses cause an array of endocrinological, metabolic and immunological changes in patients. The landmark studies in the 1980s showed that adequate anesthesia dramatically improved the outcomes of pediatric surgical patients by attenuating stress hormonal responses, pointing out the harm of ‘inadequate’ anesthesia. Subsequent studies questioned the role of administering very high-dose anesthetics to further attenuate stress responses. Here we review the feature of surgical stress responses in pediatric patients including their difference from those in adult patients. Overall, pediatric patients show minimal or no resting energy expenditure change postoperatively. In adult patients, increased resting energy expenditure has been described. Pediatric patients demonstrated robust cortisol and catecholamine responses than adult patients. However, the duration of these surges is often short-lived. Systemic proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels have been measured. Pediatric patients showed less proinflammatory cytokine elevation, but had similar anti-antiinflamatory responses. We also review in detail the immunological changes in response to surgical stress. Based on our current knowledge, we attempted to understand the underlying mechanism how adequate anesthesia dramatically improved the outcome of patients. Although more work is needed to be done, understanding how pediatric patients respond to perioperative stress, and its mechanism and consequence will allow us to direct us into a better, perioperative management in this population.
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