Shock Properties of H2O Ice

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Shock Properties of H2O Ice

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Title: Shock Properties of H2O Ice
Author: Ahrens, Thomas J.; Stewart, Sarah

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Citation: Stewart, Sarah T., and Thomas J. Ahrens. 2005. Shock properties of H2O ice. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets 110, no. E03055: 1-23
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Abstract: To understand the mechanics and thermodynamics of impacts on, and collisions between, icy planetary bodies, we measured the dynamic strength and shock states in H2O ice. Here, we expand upon previous analyses and present a complete description of the phases, temperature, entropy, and sound velocity along the ice shock Hugoniot. Derived from shock wave measurements centered at initial temperatures (T-0) of 100 K and 263 K, the Hugoniot is composed of five regions: (1) elastic shocks in ice Ih, (2) ice Ih deformation shocks, and shock transformation to (3) ice VI, (4) ice VII, and (5) liquid water. In each region, data obtained at different initial temperatures are described by a single U-S-D Delta u(p) shock equation of state. The dynamic strength of ice Ih is strongly dependent on initial temperature, and the Hugoniot Elastic Limit varies from 0.05 to 0.62 GPa, as a function of temperature and peak shock stress. We present new bulk sound velocity measurements and release profiles from shock pressures between 0.4 and 1.2 GPa. We report revised values for the shock pressures required to induce incipient melting (0.6 +/- 0.05, 1.6 +/- 0.3 GPa) and complete melting (2.5 +/- 0.1, 4.1 +/- 0.3 GPa) upon isentropic release from the shock state (for T-0 = 263, 100 K). On account of the > 40% density increase upon transformation from ice Ih to ices VI and VII, the critical shock pressures required for melting are factors of 2 to 10 lower than earlier predicted. Consequently, hypervelocity impact cratering on planetary surfaces and mutual collisions between porous cometesimals will result in abundant shock-induced melting throughout the solar system.
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