Molecular Chaperone Accumulation in Cancer and Decrease in Alzheimer's Disease: The Potential Roles of HSF1
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CitationCalderwood, Stuart K., and Ayesha Murshid. 2017. “Molecular Chaperone Accumulation in Cancer and Decrease in Alzheimer's Disease: The Potential Roles of HSF1.” Frontiers in Neuroscience 11 (1): 192. doi:10.3389/fnins.2017.00192. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2017.00192.
AbstractMolecular chaperones are required to maintain the proteome in a folded and functional state. When challenges to intracellular folding occur, the heat shock response is triggered, leading to increased synthesis of a class of inducible chaperones known as heat shock proteins (HSP). Although HSP synthesis is known to undergo a general decline in most cells with aging, the extent of this process varies quite markedly in some of the diseases associated with advanced age. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), a prevalent protein folding disorder in the brain, the heat shock response of some critical classes of neurons becomes reduced. The resulting decline in HSP expression may be a consequence of the general enfeeblement of many aspects of cell physiology with aging and/or a response to the pathological changes in metabolism observed specifically in AD. Cancer cells, in contrast to normal aging cells, undergo de novo increases in HSP levels. This expansion in HSP expression has been attributed to increases in folding demand in cancer or to the evolution of new mechanisms for induction of the heat shock response in rapidly adapting cancer cells. As the predominant pathway for regulation of HSP synthesis involves transcription factor HSF1, it has been suggested that dysregulation of this factor may play a decisive role in the development of each disease. We will discuss what is known of the mechanisms of HSF1 regulation in regard to the HSP dysregulation seen in in AD and cancer.
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