Artemisinin resistance without pfkelch13 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia
Ashley, Elizabeth A.
Dondorp, Arjen M.
White, Nicholas J.
Volkman, Sarah K.Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationMukherjee, A., S. Bopp, P. Magistrado, W. Wong, R. Daniels, A. Demas, S. Schaffner, et al. 2017. “Artemisinin resistance without pfkelch13 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia.” Malaria Journal 16 (1): 195. doi:10.1186/s12936-017-1845-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-1845-5.
AbstractBackground: Artemisinin resistance is associated with delayed parasite clearance half-life in vivo and correlates with ring-stage survival under dihydroartemisinin in vitro. Both phenotypes are associated with mutations in the PF3D7_1343700 pfkelch13 gene. Recent spread of artemisinin resistance and emerging piperaquine resistance in Southeast Asia show that artemisinin combination therapy, such as dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine, are losing clinical effectiveness, prompting investigation of drug resistance mechanisms and development of strategies to surmount emerging anti-malarial resistance. Methods: Sixty-eight parasites isolates with in vivo clearance data were obtained from two Tracking Resistance to Artemisinin Collaboration study sites in Cambodia, culture-adapted, and genotyped for pfkelch13 and other mutations including pfmdr1 copy number; and the RSA0–3h survival rates and response to antimalarial drugs in vitro were measured for 36 of these isolates. Results: Among these 36 parasites one isolate demonstrated increased ring-stage survival for a PfKelch13 mutation (D584V, RSA0–3h = 8%), previously associated with slow clearance but not yet tested in vitro. Several parasites exhibited increased ring-stage survival, yet lack pfkelch13 mutations, and one isolate showed evidence for piperaquine resistance. Conclusions: This study of 68 culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from Cambodia with known clearance values, associated the D584V PfKelch13 mutation with increased ring-stage survival and identified parasites that lack pfkelch13 mutations yet exhibit increased ring-stage survival. These data suggest mutations other than those found in pfkelch13 may be involved in conferring artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum. Piperaquine resistance was also detected among the same Cambodian samples, consistent with reports of emerging piperaquine resistance in the field. These culture-adapted parasites permit further investigation of mechanisms of both artemisinin and piperaquine resistance and development of strategies to prevent or overcome anti-malarial resistance. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12936-017-1845-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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