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dc.contributor.advisorDryden-Peterson, Sarahen_US
dc.contributor.authorMulimbi, Bethanyen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-20T13:52:47Z
dc.date.created2017-05en_US
dc.date.issued2017-05-05en_US
dc.date.submitted2017en_US
dc.identifier.citationMulimbi, Bethany. 2017. Botho – “I Am Because We are.” Constructing National Identity in the Midst of Ethnic Diversity in Botswana’s Junior Secondary Schools. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard Graduate School of Education.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:33052851
dc.description.abstractMultiethnic states globally face the dilemma of how to negotiate ethnic diversity while promoting a unified national identity. In Botswana, a remarkable example of peace and stability in Sub-Saharan Africa, two highly visible discourses around national identity – one constructing national identity around the majority ethnic group’s culture and language, and the other of a tolerant, multicultural nation – currently compete across public spheres. Formal schools are key institutions through which to observe the nature and effects of these competing discourses. State leaders use mass education as a vehicle to transmit an authorized version of national identity, through centralized education policies and curriculum. Yet schools are also sites in which ordinary teachers and students actively participate in constructing the nation. This dissertation reports on comparative case studies of four junior secondary schools that vary in the ethnic composition of their student bodies and surrounding communities. The work analyzes one overarching question: How does national identity, as currently constructed and experienced in Botswana’s public junior secondary schools, account for the reality of ethnic diversity in the nation-state and its schools? The three papers that together comprise this dissertation approach the inquiry through different lenses. The first paper analyzes social studies curriculum, as written in the syllabus and textbooks and as taught by teachers, to consider how national identity is officially constructed. The second examines how Botswana’s schools respond to the multiculturalism of their student bodies, within the context of assimilationist and nationally centralized education policies and curriculum. The final paper considers how junior secondary schools shape the social identity development of adolescents as they negotiate how and why to enact ethnic versus national identities. Overall, I find continuing dominance of majority Tswana language and culture in the content of public schools’ policies and curriculum in Botswana, which are then implemented with fidelity by teachers and administrators, regardless of the cultural composition and perceived needs of their student bodies. In each paper, I offer recommendations for how practitioners and policy makers might move forward in transforming multicultural discourse into multicultural school practices promoting the equality of all of Botswana’s students.en_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dash.licenseLAAen_US
dc.subjectEducation, Bilingual and Multiculturalen_US
dc.subjectEducation, Curriculum and Instructionen_US
dc.subjectEducation, Secondaryen_US
dc.titleBotho – “I Am Because We are.” Constructing National Identity in the Midst of Ethnic Diversity in Botswana’s Junior Secondary Schoolsen_US
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen_US
dash.depositing.authorMulimbi, Bethanyen_US
dc.date.available2017-06-20T13:52:47Z
thesis.degree.date2017en_US
thesis.degree.grantorHarvard Graduate School of Educationen_US
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Education (Ed.D.)en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberLevinson, Meiraen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberUccelli, Paolaen_US
dc.type.materialtexten_US
dash.identifier.vireohttp://etds.lib.harvard.edu/gse/admin/view/161en_US
dc.description.keywordsmulticultural education; African education; social studies; social identity; peace building; ethnic minorities; national identity; language of instructionen_US
dash.author.emailblhoag@gmail.comen_US
dash.identifier.orcid0000-0002-4233-6210en_US
dash.contributor.affiliatedMulimbi, Bethany Lynn
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0002-4233-6210


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