Two-Photon Absorbing Nanocrystal Sensors for Ratiometric Detection of Oxygen
McLaurin, Emily J.
Greytak, Andrew B.
Bawendi, Moungi G.
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CitationMcLaurin, Emily J., Andrew B. Greytak, Moungi G. Bawendi, and Daniel G. Nocera. 2009. “Two-Photon Absorbing Nanocrystal Sensors for Ratiometric Detection of Oxygen.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 131 (36) (September 16): 12994–13001. doi:10.1021/ja902712b.
AbstractTwo nanocrystal-osmium(II) polypyridyl (NC-Os(II)PP) conjugates have been designed to detect oxygen in biological environments. Polypyridines appended with a single free amine were linked with facility to a carboxylic acid functionality of a semiconductor NC overlayer to afford a biologically stable amide bond. The Os(II)PP complexes possess broad absorptions that extend into the red spectral region; this absorption feature makes them desirable acceptors of energy from NC donors. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the NC to the Os(II)PP causes an enhanced Os(II)PP emission with a concomitant quenching of the NC emission. Owing to the large two-photon absorption cross-section of the NCs, FRET from NC to the Os(II)PP can be established under two-photon excitation conditions. In this way, two-photon processes of metal polypyridyl complexes can be exploited for sensing. The emission of the NC is insensitive to oxygen, even at 1 atm, whereas excited states of both osmium complexes are quenched in the presence of oxygen. The NC emission may thus be used as an internal reference to correct for fluctuations in the photoluminescence intensity signal. These properties taken together establish NC-Os(II)PP conjugates as competent ratiometric, two-photon oxygen sensors for application in biological microenvironments.
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