# Hidden Cost of U.S. Agricultural Exports: Particulate Matter from Ammonia Emissions

 Title: Hidden Cost of U.S. Agricultural Exports: Particulate Matter from Ammonia Emissions Author: Paulot, Fabien; Jacob, Daniel James Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors. Citation: Paulot, Fabien, and Daniel James Jacob. 2014. Hidden Cost of U.S. Agricultural Exports: Particulate Matter from Ammonia Emissions. Environmental Science & Technology 48, no. 2: 903–908. doi:10.1021/es4034793 Access Status: Full text of the requested work is not available in DASH at this time (“dark deposit”). For more information on dark deposits, see our FAQ. Full Text & Related Files: Hidden cost of U.S. agricultural exports.pdf (1.587Mb; PDF) Abstract: We use a model of agricultural sources of ammonia $$(NH_3)$$ coupled to a chemical transport model to estimate the impact of U.S. food export on particulate matter concentrations $$(PM_{2.5})$$. We find that food export accounts for 11% of total U.S. $$NH_3$$ emissions (13% of agricultural emissions) and that it increases the population-weighted exposure of the U.S. population to $$PM_{2.5}$$ by $$0.36 \mu g m^{–3}$$ on average. Our estimate is sensitive to the proper representation of the impact of $$NH_3$$ on ammonium nitrate, which reflects the interplay between agricultural $$(NH_3)$$ and combustion emissions $$(NO, SO_2)$$. Eliminating $$NH_3$$ emissions from food export would achieve greater health benefits than the reduction of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for $$PM_{2.5}$$ from $$15 to 12 \mu g m^{–3}$$. Valuation of the increased premature mortality associated with $$PM_{2.5}$$ from food export (36 billion US\$ (2006) per year) amounts to 50% of the gross food export value. Livestock operations in densely populated areas have particularly large health costs. Decreasing $$SO_2$$ and $$NO_x$$ emissions will indirectly reduce health impact of food export as an ancillary benefit. Published Version: doi:10.1021/es4034793 Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:33490693 Downloads of this work: