Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller

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Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller

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Title: Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller
Author: Walker-Sperling, Victoria E.; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W.; Veenhuis, Rebecca T.; May, Megan; Luna, Krystle A.; Kirkpatrick, Allison R.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Cox, Andrea L.; Carrington, Mary; Bailey, Justin R.; Arduino, Roberto C.; Blankson, Joel N.

Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.

Citation: Walker-Sperling, V. E., C. W. Pohlmeyer, R. T. Veenhuis, M. May, K. A. Luna, A. R. Kirkpatrick, O. Laeyendecker, et al. 2017. “Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller.” EBioMedicine 16 (1): 141-149. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.01.034. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.01.034.
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Abstract: HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of < 100 copies/mL. She did not have any known protective HLA alleles, but significant immune activation of CD8 + T cells and natural killer (NK) cells was present, and both cell types inhibited viral replication. Virus cultured from this patient replicated as well in vitro as virus isolated from her partner, a patient with AIDS who was the source of transmission. Virologic breakthrough occurred 9 months after her initial presentation and was associated with an increase in CD4 + T cell activation levels and a significant decrease in NK cell inhibitory capacity. Remarkably, CD8 + T cell inhibitory capacity was preserved and there were no new escape mutations in targeted Gag epitopes. These findings suggest that fully replication-competent virus can be controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication.
Published Version: doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.01.034
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5474502/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:33490737
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