Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of The Quiescent Medium of Nearby Clouds. I. Ice Formation and Grain Growth in Lupus
Boogert, A. C. A.
Chiar, J. E.
Mundy, L. G.
Pendleton, Y. J.
Tielens, A. G. G. M.
van Dishoeck, E. F.Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationBoogert, A. C. A., J. E. Chiar, C. Knez, K. I. Öberg, L. G. Mundy, Y. J. Pendleton, A. G. G. M. Tielens, and E. F. van Dishoeck. 2013. “INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS.” The Astrophysical Journal 777 (1) (October 17): 73. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/777/1/73.
AbstractInfrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 um) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of the grains and the composition of the ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H2O ices form at extinctions of Ak=0.25+/-0.07 mag (Av=2.1+/-0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H2O ice (2.3+/-0.1*10^-5 relative to Nh) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of 3-4 compared to dense envelopes of YSOs. The low solid CH3OH abundance (<3-8% relative to H2O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 um) continuum extinction relative to Ak increases as a function of Ak. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to Rv~ 3.5 (Ak=0.71) and Rv~5.0 (Ak=1.47). For lines of sight with Ak>1.0 mag, the tau9.7/Ak ratio is a factor of 2 lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the tau9.7/Ak ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A7.4/Ak continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts.
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