Polinsky, Maria, and Omer Preminger. 2014. Case and Grammatical Relations. In Routledge Handbook of Syntax, ed. Andrew Carnie, Dan Siddiqi, and Yosuke Sato, 150-166. New York: Routledge.
This chapter discusses the notions of morphological (surface) case and abstract Case, showing the empirical and theoretical motivation for each. The discussion of morphological case presents the dimensions of cross-linguistic variation found in this domain, and outlines the main tendencies in the expression of case. The notion of abstract Case is used to predict the distribution of overt and non-overt nominal forms, and is considered one of the fundamental abstract syntactic relations in linguistic theory. The chapter presents a brief survey of theoretical approaches to Case in formal grammar and then discusses the main ways of modeling Case in nominative-accusative and ergative languages.