ENSO’s Phase Locking to the Seasonal Cycle in the Fast-SST, Fast-Wave, and Mixed-Mode Regimes
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CitationGalanti, Eli and Eli Tziperman. 2000. ENSO's phase locking to the seasonal cycle in the fast SST, fast wave, and mixed mode regimes. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 57(17): 2936-2950.
AbstractThe physical mechanism underlying ENSO’s phase locking to the seasonal cycle is examined in three parameter regimes: the fast-SST limit, the fast-wave limit, and the mixed SST–wave dynamics regime. The seasonal cycle is imposed on simple ordinary differential equation models for each physical regime either as a seasonal ocean–atmosphere coupling strength obtained from the model of Zebiak and Cane or as a climatological seasonal upwelling. In all three parameter regimes, the seasonal variations in the ocean–atmosphere coupling strength force the events to peak toward the end of the calendar year, whereas the effect of upwelling is shown to be less important. The phase locking mechanism in the mixed-mode and fast-SST regimes relies on the seasonal excitation of the Kelvin and the Rossby waves by wind stress anomalies in the central Pacific basin. The peak time of the events is set by the dynamics to allow a balance between the warming and cooling trends due to downwelling Kelvin and upwelling Rossby waves. This balance is obtained because the warming trend due to the large-amplitude Kelvin waves, amplified by a weak Northern Hemisphere wintertime ocean–atmosphere coupling strength, balances the cooling trend due to weak Rossby waves, amplified by a strong summertime coupling strength. The difference between the locking mechanisms in the mixed-mode regime and in the fast-SST regime is used to understand the effect of the SST adjustment time on the timing of the phase locking. Finally, in the less realistic fast-wave regime, a different physical mechanism for ENSO’s phase locking is revealed through the SST adjustment time and the interaction between the east Pacific region and the central Pacific region.
Citable link to this pagehttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:3425925
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